1. Base from your readings, why are allergy and asthma considered to be a public health issue?
An Allergy is a form of hypersensitivity and is a harmful immune response to antigens that causes tissue damage and other diseases and also it can be considered as a type of autoimmunity.
Asthma and allergy are considered to be a public health issue because in the United States, these two are the most common reason why patients are hospitalized which composes one thirds of the all patient that goes to the doctor, compared to hypertension and other medical examinations which has fewer in number. The most common type of allergy is peanuts and tree nuts. Accorging to Ladegaard(2012) “food allergies are in many parts of the world nonetheless seen as a serious public health issue”.
2. Why does the immune system can be a serious barrier to organ transplantation which is a potentially life-saving treatment? Give one case study in journal type (Include the title and the link to the journal)
The immune system is divided in two which is the innate and adaptive immunities. The function of the immune system is to defend the body against infectious organisms, the immune system attacks harmful organisms that is trying to invade the body.
The adaptive immunity is considered as the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, in organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue. MHC (major histocompatibility complex) is the principal target of the immune response.
Grafted tissue rejection is caused by cell surface molecules that induce an antigenic stimulus. According to Garcia et. al. (2012) the principal target of the transplantation immune response is the MHC molecules as expressed on the surface of donor cells.
Case study: Cutler, J. et. al(2002).Organ donation after neurologically unsurvivable injury: a case study with ethical implications for physicians.Retrieved https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1276498/
3. Is race a possible determinant of immune dysfunction? Support your answer
In immune dysfunction history of the family is the strongest factor that causes a disorder of the immune system. This suggests that different population that has a common genetic background leads to autoimmunity and genetics is not the only one that affects immune dysfunction but also environmental factors play a role in acquiring this disease.
According to McCoy(2009) there are certain ethnicity of people who has higher percentage to be at risk of immune disorders like African American, American Indian, or Latino.
4. Discuss severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening group of rare diseases that are present at birth. This is caused by abnormalies of the B cell and T cell. SCID can be caused by mutations in several genes and it can be an X-linked recessive or autosomal recessive. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) is the most common type of SCID which is a enzyme deficient of adenosine deaminase (ADA)
5. Propose a possible research title about any of the four immune dysfunctions and give a short background.
Autoimmune disease: Immune system antibodies attack and destroy insulin-producing cells causing Diabetes mellitus type 1
The pancreas in an insulin producing organ, if this is damaged it will only produce small amounts or no longer be able to produce insulin which results the body by being not being able to use the sugar as an energy.
Diabetes type 1 or also known as insulin dependent diabetes can occur at a young age or also be present at birth because of genetics.