3.5. SELECTION OF VARIABLES
After having seen relevant materials of basketball such as different books, journals, research articles and coaching manuals next to this discussion with sport science teachers, experts and coaches. Then, in terms of the relevance of the variables for basketball players, the following variables have been selected for the present study. The variable were consists of dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable was skill performance variable whereas physical fitness and anthropometric measurement were independent variables were taken from each participant.
Dependent variable: Basketball skill performance ability (AAHBERD basketball skill test 1984)
Independent variables: the selected independent variables were listed as follows:
There are a number of test batteries for physical fitness and anthropometric measurement and skill performance measurement players which may vary according to the age, sex category and ability of the body.
Physical fitness test battery which is commonly used in the world like, EUROFIT, FITNESSGRAM, and UNIFITTEST are currently the most widely used test batteries which are currently used for evaluation of physical fitness. Rubín, L., & Suchomel, A. (2013). The other mostly, commonly worldwide used and existing field-based physical fitness test batteries for children and adolescents (Ruiz et al., 2011; Castro-Piñero et al., 2010) According to Cveji?, D., Pejovi?, T., & Ostoji?, S. (2013) includes EUROFIT ( Council of Europe Committee for the Development of Sport) found in Europe, FITNESSGRAM (The Cooper Institute) set up in USA, PCHF (The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports/American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER)) established in USA , PCPF (The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports/American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation) in USA, AAUTB (Amateur Athletic Union Test Battery. Chrysler Foundation/Amateur Athletic Union) USA, YMCAYFT ( YMCA Youth Fitness Test) USA, NYPFP (National Youth Physical Program). The United States Marines Youth Foundation USA , HRFT ( Health-Related Fitness Test) American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) USA, Physical Best American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) USA, IPFT ( International Physical Fitness Test) (United States Sports Academic/General Organization of Youth and Sport of Bahrain) USA, CAHPER-FPT II ( Fitness Performance Test II. Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (CAHPER)) Canada, CPAFLA (The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Approach) (Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology) Canada, NFTP-PRC (National Fitness Test Program in the Popular Republic China)(China’s National Sport and Physical Education Committee) China, NZFT (New Zealand Fitness Test). Rusell/Department of Education New Zealand, AFEA ( Australian Fitness Education Award) The Australian Council for Health, Education and Recreation ( ACHER) Australia.
Anthropometric measurement also International society for the advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, 2012), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
2007-2008, Durnin-Womersley body fat measurement method 1974, Jackson ; Pollock, 1978,
According to (Joseph, S. (2013)) there are a number of basketball skill tests have been developed in early time. Namely Johnson Basketball Test (1934), Knox Basketball Test (1947), Stroup Basketball Test (1955), Harrison Basketball Test (1969), AAHPERD Basketball Test (1984).in addition to this Harrison (1969) basketball test, Sabharwal (1991) basketball test, and Lehsten (1948) basketball test batteries.
There are different types of physical fitness, anthropometry and skill performance test batteries available in different literature and book but for the present study the following physical fitness, anthropometric, and skill performance batteries were selected.
The physical fitness component assessed by using the following test batteries AAHPERD: physical fitness test for College Students and above, YMCA – physical fitness testing battery for adults as well as youth, FITNESSGRAM – for youth fitness testing for physical fitness test batteries.
For assessing anthropometry variables the investigator employed the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) and Durnin-Womersley body fat measurement method 1974.
There are a number of skill performance test batteries but for the present study the investigator employed the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Basketball Skills Tests (1984) which consists of four basketball skills test items namely Speed Spot Shooting, Accuracy Speed Passing, Control Dribble, and Defensive Movement test. The test is appropriate and the most widely used basketball skill test to evaluate the skill of basketball players up to collage level.
3.5.1. PHYSICAL FITNESS VARIABLE
Physical fitness variables were measured by the following tests. Speed was assessed by 50 meter run , flexibility was assessed by Sit and reach test, Leg explosive strength assessed by standing broad jump, Balance assessed by stork stand test, agility was assessed by shuttle run, power was measured by vertical jump test, Arm muscular power was assessed by dynamometer, cardiovascular endurance assessed by 12 minute run. Instruments were used in the study include hand dynamometer, metal beam, stopwatch, steel tape, cone, testing box and measuring scale, and measuring tape.
3.5.2. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT
Anthropometric measurements are used to assess the size, shape and composition of the human body. The anthropometric measurements such as age, weight, standing height, BMI, arm length and leg length and body fat. Weight of the study participants was measured to the nearest Kg with weighing machine and measuring range up to 180kg, Height of the participants was measured using stature meter, and Le length and arm length of the study subject were measured using measuring tape in centimeter.
Weight was also measure with lightly clothing and no shoes. Calibration was performing before weighing each participant by setting it to zero. Weighing scale was also checked against a standard weight for its accuracy on daily basis.
Skin fold was also measured using caliper. The skin fold sites were biceps, triceps, sub scapula and superaliac. The landmarks were identified and measured according to Durnin-Womersley Skin fold Locations (Durnin and Womersley 1974).
3.5.3. SKILL PERFORMANCE VARIABLE
The investigator used the AAHPERD basketball skill test (1984). The test is very important to measure the player performance of selected skills. To measure the player’s basketball skill the test battery consists of four items: Speed spot shooting, passing, control dribble and defensive movement. These tests are standardized, appropriate and good metric characteristics and they were designed by (AAHPERD, 1984) the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
3.6. INSTRUMENT RELIABILITY
Different instruments were used for taking accurate and consistent measurements on the anthropometric, physical fitness and skill measurement. The instruments were stature meter, weight machine, skin fold caliber, stop watch, dynamometry, meter, cone, basketball, sit and rich box and ruler. The use of proper equipment is most essential for getting reliable and valid data. The instruments were purchases from standard companies and their Calibrations were accepted as reliable with international standards. Calibration was performing before measuring each participant by setting the minimum values of the instrument zero.