4

Etudes

4. Time Management: Changes are inevitable during the project, there are few projects that are completed on the time according t the original project plan. There are number of changes that can be occurred during the project:
a) Type of change
Duration of the whole project can be increased, due to number of reasons such as delayed in the external deliveries such as hardware tools and other resources that are important for the execution of the process.

Experience of the team members significantly contribute in the delay of the project. Team members have a different experience, so some can do tasks on time and might be others not, consequently, during the project, activities will not be complete on the time.

Weather changes also leads to different type of changes in the project, such as
Other changes such as technical change, financial change, some are political or people related.

Sometime clients are getting changed their requirements, on which they were agreed on the initiating state, that affects the execution time of the project.
Financial issues also put a impact on the duration of the project
b) Time of occurrence
Time management can be changed at ant time of the project because time depends uoan the every activity of the project
So, any activity can delay at any process such as at the beginning of the project: delay in the selection of the project team, consequently, it impacts on the whole time management
It can be happen in the executing time. For example, delayed in the paymets or materials, which can cause the change of time mangement of the whole project
c) Corrective actions
Manager should create a realistic project schedule that offers a proper guideline to monitor the project from start date to end date.

Important tools should include by the Manager such as Gantt chart, Critical Path Analysis
Critical Chain Scheduling(CCS) also help to manage the time dimensions for the project. In CCS, recourse can work on multitasks at one time.

Project buffer is also good choice for controlling the time management in the project.

They should prepare assignment reports which includes that who does what and when with the dates.

Must be determines the dependencies to start the next activity.

Project manager should utilize the project management software to boost the time management. Nowadays a lot of project software are available for the projects.
Proper Network Diagram about the sequencing of the activities.

Once activities are identifying, then allocate the people, material, resources or equipment that required to complete those activities.

d) Affected deliverables
If the time management changes, the deliverables cannot deliver on proper time
And it impacts the reputation of the company.

Dissatisfaction between the stakeholders.

Company can loose the further contracts with the same stakeholders.

Government can impose ban on that prduct after log time
5.Cost Management: Cost management is the most paramount aspect of the project management. During the process of cost management, managers use different type of tools and techniques to ensure that project should be completed in the estimated budget
Change of type:
As a number of changes occurred in the life cycle of the project have a grat impact on the cost of the project. For example, if firstly manger is spending on the simple design in the initial stage and in the executing phase, clients demand for the decorative design, this will affect the cost management.

Shortage of the lobar: If during the project, there will be a shortage of the labour in the market, then company will have to hire the labour from outside with the high pay rate.
Cost management is also affected by the type of material. During the time of planning, if they include the low quality of material and during the time of testing, stakeholders demands for the high quality.
As we know technology is changing day by day. Technical updates can change the cost of the project, especially in the long projects, manager can put tech solutions with upgoing version and can be out of date by planned end. So, at that stage, new software has to put into the project, which can be more expensive than oldest one.

Exchange rates: if the material such as equipment and other software is imported from other states or countries and the exchange rate do not remain same like as beginning of the project, then it will increase the cost of the project.

The lack of financial for the completion of the project has a significantly impact on the project. If the expenses of the project increase significantly as compared to estimated cost of the project at the beginning or delayed in the payments can effects the cost management.
b) Time of occurrence
Cost changes can occur at any phase of the project, when any change held in the project, it affects the cost management.

c) Corrective actions
As a project manager, cost management plan should properly generate, contains full detail of the cost estimate, cost budgeting, cost controlling.

Manger should account all the software, hardware, labour, material cost while preparing for the cost budget plan and it is done by arranging meetings with the team members and stakeholders.

Updating yourself can help to control the cost. Manger can generate strategies that how he/she can use funds efficiently in the future.

Procedures, policies and documentations for the planning, managing, expending and controlling the project cost would be a fruitful for the progress of the project.

Manger should take in to the account about the updating project costs and cost baseline.
Regularly checking of the cost that is accounted to the project at the end of the month and it can be associate with the approved budget.
Projects should be tracked by project managers regularly, appropriately handle the changes occurred in the scope management, which might be the causes of the cost estimation change.

Risk contingencies should be prepared by the manager and let to know to the whole project team as well.
There are three main tools: earned value management(EVM), To- complete performance index(TCPI) and forecasting, which can help to measure the cost of the project.

d) Affected deliverables
6. Quality Management: Quality of the project means the project has satisfactory requirements. In the project management, quality means reliability, performance, functionality and suitability of the project that fulfil the client’s needs. To control the quality, managers should follow the phases of the good quality management plan.

a) Change of type:
If the project manager and project team is not skilled, they do not know how to manage the quality of the project, it impacts the project quality.

Quality of the project is also associated with the quality of material and equipment as well. For example, if the manager is using the good quality of software then the project’s quality will be good. That software can handle a number of tasks at one time, it will not buffer.

A poor quality management time.

Time of occurrence
Quality of the project can occurred
in the last stage of the project, because the testing task is takes place in the end of the
project
Corrective actions
Good quality of material should be used in the projects, so that there is no complain about the quality of the project
For the process of the auditing the quality experienced people should be hire.

Manger should use the technique of design of experiments which contains the information about the different type of variations who has a great impact on the quality.

In quality assurance, there is two processes, benchmarking in which the progressive project can be compare with other similar projects and quality audit, which gives ideas about the improvement of the quality.

Case and effect diagrams can help to find the root cause of the bad quality and in this process , that product can be sent back to the production department.

Control chart and run chart try to protect the project from the defects and show the up and downs during the project respectively.

The control function must be follow by the manger properly, from the engineering department to construction, from lower level to higher level, everyone has a same goal of quality and cost effectiveness.
Inspection about the quality of the project should be calculated regularly and deliverables inspected thoroughly.

The stakeholder’s expectations should be documented, so that after some time team cannot forget the main requirements of the project.

Affected deliverables
Without proper quality management plan, a project can contain the chances of high risks.

Without proper details of needs of the stakeholders, projects can be derailed if there is number of interpretations about how project can determine.

Pure quality causes the wastage of the time. After completing the project, if the project has a low quality, the whole team rework on the same project. Consequently, delayed deliveries, and companies cannot afford for the delayed deliveries as they already sighed on the contract, company can get a penalty for delaying services.

If the stakeholders not satisfied with the standards of the quality, project can be reopen, which again requires the cost to work on it.
Once you delivered the project and some quality issues come up with that project, then relation of customer and organisation can become worst, which is very dis advantageous for the o rganisation in the market,
7. HR Management: The precious part of the project is its people. Any organisation can rank as first in the competition, if the company has a talented and skilled employee . Human Resources Management organize and manage the whole project team from high level to low level, who is involved in the project, externally or internally from the creation of the project to its success.
a) Type of change:
Selecting the project team(PT) is the key responsibility of the human resource management, if HR select the wrong skilled people for the project team it can affect the project extremely bad.

More than just hiring the people in the project team, it the key responsibility of the HR to select the people who have great competencies, multitasking ability and intest in the project.

PT requires their freedom of working during the cycle of the project, so HR should hire the mature project manager, who can make balance progressively in the freedom of the team
Another reason of occurring the change is HR should consider where they are hiring project team, mostly with the internal employees, but if there is the requirement they can do externally as well.

b) Time of occurrence
Changes can be occurred in the HR management in the initiating phase of the process
It is the first stage of the project, when company selects its HR, if they feel their HR is not perfect they can change it.

Organisation has a authority to change HR at any phase of the project, when they feel, HR not properly guide the project team and it is unable to create a good relations between teammates and with stakeholder.

c) Corrective actions
Human resource management should make effective selection plan to hire a perfect people in the project team.

4 processes include in this, human resources planning, acquiring the team, developing and managing the team properly.

HR responsible for the track of the team, and provide them motivation and make the employee positive towards work and if prepare the feedback for every person who is attached to the project.

Intrinsic motivation is about the people’s own interest in the project and extrinsic motivation to avoid the penalty and hike the recognition.

Organisational issues should be resolve by HR properly by adding all the strategies which are helpful to make environment of the organisation operative.

Responsibility assignment matrix paly a paramount role in the managing the project and project team which contains the responsibilities and the entire work in the form of WBS.

Staffing management plan and resource histogram contains the information about when people should add in the project and when take-off and number of resources that require for whole the project.

HR should prepare recourse levelling for the project, in this number of recourse are allocated to different tasks, this technique useful when shortage of the resource.

Tools to handle the PT are observation and conversation, interpersonal skills, conflict management and project performance appraisal.
HR should try to develop some good relations between the teammates for the successful project, for that they can adopt a Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) tool, to judge the personality preferences.

d) Affected deliverables
Human resource management is responsible for the project team, if HRM not works properly, it impacts on the quality of the team, and might be the team would not be much skilled and experienced, which has the direct impact on the performance
The main purpose of the training to provide the information about the business’s culture and about its history to the novice, so unsuitable information can stray the people from the project’s track.

8) Stakeholder and communications management: Stakeholder management means the maintain the expectations of the stakeholder regarding the project and product. This approach is designed for the engagement of the stakeholders, project does not mean that provide with good scope, on time and with approved budget, it should be fulfilled the requirements of the clients and stakeholder, for that the participation of the stakeholders is extremely pivotal.
a) Type of change
If company will not communicate time to time with the stakeholders, may be the mind of the stakeholder change during the time;
Requirements could be changed
Status of the position of the stakeholder can be changed, for example stakeholder can change from internal to external.

b) Time of occurrence
These changes can be happened any time if the life cycle of the project
Mostly communication changes occurred in the executing process, because it is third process of the project
This id the stage when communications have a high priority, managers need to communicate with stakeholders for diffident purposes.
c) Corrective actions
Manger should follow the stakeholder management plans and all the process that includes in this.

Mangers need someone who can speak on the outputs, who can give ideas on the delivery so that they can do changes if it requires
Identification of the stakeholders means who is impacted by and who impacts the project is the key ingredients of this management. Then make the strategies to engage them into the project and continuously manage it.
With the help of stakeholder register, it become easy to know that stakeholder is internal or external and what are their requirements and what is their relations with the organisation.

For the communications with the stakeholders can be proof as the fruitful for the success of the project.

In the communication management, information should be collect, write, mange, distribute and store properly to inform the stakeholders.

Organisation can use different techniques and tools for the communication such as face to face meetings, formal meeting, chairing a meeting.

Different type of communication can be used to manage the communication with the stakeholders such as interactive communication: two or more people meet to exchange the information, push communication: information send to the other people through any technology and recipients receives the information and pull communication: when anyone demands the in formation, than company send that information to the person.

Performance reporting should be given to the stakeholders, how the resources are being used to progress the project.

Organisation should have a proper communication infrastructure to make sure communication management.
d) Affected deliverables
If the stakeholder management is not proper in the project it impacts negatively on the performance.

If the communication and stakeholder management is not properly carry out it creates a number of misunderstandings between the stakeholders and the organisation.

Misunderstanding could be a related to the cost of resources, number of people, requirements of the clients
Failure in good communications can causes the dissatisfaction between the project team, manger and stakeholders and the customers as well.