NAME: Margereth
COURSE:Analytical Chemistry
SUBJECT:Chromatography (Module A)
TITLE OF REPORT: Gas Chromatography

INTRODUCTIONIn this technical report it will be focussed on the use and applications of gas chromatography in the various industries. The industries that would be discussed are petrochemical, food industry, environmental, agriculture, forensic and pharmaceutical industry.
WHAT IS CHROMATOGRAPHYChromatography can be defined as the separation, identification and determination of a components in a mixture. It will also depend on the difference in their kinship between the mobile phase (flowing) and fixed stationary phase.

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TYPES OF CHROMATOGRAPHYGas solid chromatography (GSC) – The mobile phase appears in the form of a gas and the stationary phase appears as a solid. The solid stationary phase retains the analyte by physical adsorption.

Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) – The components of vaporized samples is fractionated due to the partition between the gaseous mobile phase and the liquid stationary phase held in a column. Separation takes place between ions ore molecules that are dissolved in a solvent. The mobile phase appears as a gas and the stationary phase appears as an immobilized liquid that is kept on the surface of an inert solid by adsorption or chemical bonding.

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRYIn the petrochemical refining industry it was found that gas chromatography has a large-scale of applications in monitoring in this industry. For in this industry gas chromatography are dedicated in four different analysers such as SIMDIS, natural gas analysers, refining gas analysers and PIONA/PONA analysers.

For SIMDIS (Simulated distillation analysers) gas chromatography are used for the separation of the petroleum fractions which are in the distillation columns which are based on their boiling points. The gas chromatography analysis for natural gas would perform on a modified GC configuration which are available for a number of suppliers which are fitted with the capillary columns, valving and FID (flame ionisation detector). Refinery gas can be defined as a mixture of gases released during the fractional distillation process of crude oil which commercial use is diesel, gasoline, fuel oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas and several other petrochemicals. Refinery gas uses multi-column operation GC columns via the valve switching and the dual detectors which will be under isothermal conditions. On the nitrogen carrier gas and TCD (thermal conductivity detector), helium and Hydrogen, are detected on the molecular column. The PIONA analysis uses the GC to determine hydrocarbon groups in fuels, etc.

FOOD INDUSTRYThe food industry provides the nutritional support for the human body and it is essential to our daily lives. Gas chromatography analysis these organic substances found in the food only when it is volatile and when it passes through the gas phase rapidly. The analysis also requires the detection of any contaminated components when in storage or when it is processed.

Gas chromatography is used in the food industry to analyse the non-polar and semi-polar, volatile and semi-volatile chemicals. It is also used to analyse oils, sterols, the low chain of fatty acids, aroma components and the off-flavours, and more of the contaminants, such as industrial pollutants, pesticides and certain drug types.

ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRYThe environment is the most important to the survival of the human race and due to the pollution such as water, ground and air, the environment has become more “toxic” to any living being on the earth. For the analysis of gas chromatography in the environmental industry has provided analytical possibilities for the measuring of volatile organic compounds such as BTEX, which generates from the municipal wastes and the leakages of the petrol and diesel fuel. The most important problematic pollution to the environment is through air. The air pollution related to the VOC’s is the odour of factories and other commercial premises, which produce malodours such as organic sulphides and volatile fatty acids (C2-C5).

AGRICULTURE INDUSTRYThe agriculture industry provides healthy food to the world and they ensure that the needed instruments provided are being used for the accurate and timely data for any critical areas such as the soil composition and the water supply. This is also the industry that provides the various fruit and vegetables to the many other shopping centres or markets. Gas chromatography plays the role of determining the pesticides in the specific industry.

The pesticide residue acts as a plant protection against pests and diseases. It gets more difficult to analyse the pesticide on the plants that is used for food, because of the new chemicals that is being used as pesticides. Gas chromatography measures the separated, identify and the determine the pesticide residue that was undertaken.

FORENSIC INDUSTRYThe role in which gas chromatography plays in the forensic industry is the determination of the types of fluids and any type of incriminating evidence present at a crime scene or a deceased human body crime scene. It can determine what is present inside the body that may be toxic and it can also determine cause of death when the person has been poisoned in any given way by just analysing blood samples.

Gas chromatography are being used in this industry as process which separates the elements present in the compound mixture and decomposed them into their individual parts. It is also used for the analysis of arson which is the most dangerous cause of fires, because arson has multiple components present in that compound.
PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRYAs it is of knowledge to anyone that in the pharmaceutical industry is mostly dealt with tablets and powders. It is also defined as the analysis of a drug. The role that gas chromatography plays in this particular industry by determining the amount of chemicals in a specific drug and it is also used to characterise the composition of the fatty acids in products.

Gas chromatography also provides very high efficiency separation power and high sensitivity of the detection of very small particles of the separated species. It does ensure that the results are precise for the complex mixtures. The quality assurance and quality control are very vital in the pharmaceutical industry and their main aim in this production is tablets, serums, medicines and vaccines.
CONCLUSIONTo conclude this report it is known that gas chromatography plays a big role inside the industries mentioned above. It also covers the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the industries.
An analytical chemist has the skills to do the tasks that are handed to them just by knowing how the instruments work of gas chromatography and since this chromatography has a wide range of analysis it will help one day when being placed inside of a company and when they have to analyse separation, identification and determination of mixtures. As shown in the appendix below is just a few of examples of gas chromatography in the industries.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Forensic gas chromatograph instrument

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 Long Chain of fatty acid in the Food Industry

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 Gas Chromatography testing in Petrochemical Industry
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