a

Etudes

a) History of E-commerce

E-Commerce can be define as the process of buying and selling goods, or services on the internet.
From mobile shopping to online payment, e-commerce encloses a vast amount of data, algorithm, and tools for online buyers and online sellers.
Most of the companies with an online presence use an ecommerce store and/or an ecommerce platform to handle marketing and sales activities and also to command logistics and fulfillment.
Types of Ecommerce
There are six main e-commerce models in which we can classify businesses:
1. B2C.
2. B2B.
3. C2C.
4. C2B.
5. B2A.
6. C2A.

1. Business-to-Consumer (B2C).
B2C ecommerce is defined as all the transactions that are made between a business and a consumer. This model is one of the most famous model use in e-commerce. When a shopper buys a TV from an online TV retailer, this transaction is considered as a B2B transaction.
2. Business-to-Business (B2B).
B2B ecommerce is defined as all the sales made between a company, and another company, like a supplier and a retailer for example.This e-commerce model cannot be seen by the consumer since it only happens between business entities.
3. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C).
One of the first e-commerce model existing is the C2C ecommerce business model.
C2C describes the sale of products and/or services between an individual, and another individual. EBay and Amazon, for example are the 2 most famous C2C ecommerce website. In Singapore, Carousel is also very used for C2C transactions.
4. Consumer-to-Business (C2B).
C2B overturns the traditional e-commerce model. This is a model which is for example often see in Crowdfunding projects.
5. Business-to-Administration (B2A).
This e-commerce business model gather the transactions made between online businesses and administrations. It is not the most used model, but still important to be aware of it.
6. Consumer-to-Administration (C2A).
Same model here, but with the reverse method, which mean that consumers sells products or services online, to an administration.
? B2A and C2A are meant to increase the government efficiency via the support of digital technology.