ABSTRACT Extraction is referring to any separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix

Etudes

ABSTRACT
Extraction is referring to any separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix. There are two types of extraction which are liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. Protein extraction can be defined as process to separate the protein molecules from the cell or a process to make the cells produced protein and released it for extracellular uses, for example cell produces enzyme to digest foods. In this experiment, the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) was used to ensure the bacteria produces enzyme to digest the EFB. Another method to extract protein is through the cell lysis process. Cell lysis is the rupture of the cell membrane resulting in the release of cellular content and the proteins. Cell lysis can be achieved through physical or chemical process. The experiment treated the bacteria cells with 2mL of 0.2 M NaOH and boiled for 10 minutes to lyse the bacteria so we can extract the protein inside the cells. Next, a centrifuge is an equipment that puts objects around a fixed axis. It is used for the separation fluids based on the density. The centrifuge works based on sediment principle, so the separation is achieved by spinning the fluids or sample in circle at high speed. The  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acceleration" l "Tangential_and_centripetal_acceleration" o "Acceleration" centripetal acceleration causes denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the center. Since protein molecules are lighter, so after the centrifuge process the protein is in the upper layer of the sample. Then, the concentration of protein can be analyze by using Biuret reagent. The mixture of Biuret reagent and protein from the samples were sit for 15 minutes to allow the reaction to happen. After that, the absorbance values of the protein is measured by UV/Vis spectrophotometer and from that values the concentration of protein can be determined from the BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) standard curve.