CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Therefore

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Therefore, it is necessary to examine the literature from the broader perspective of the Effects of social media towards English learning. This chapter presents the literature that is related to the research topic and the content will be outlined into four main categories as follows:
1. Social media and learning English.
1.1 Defining effects of social media on learning English.
1.1.1 The advantages of social media in education.
1.1.2 The disadvantages of social media in education.
1.2 The effects of Social Media towards English Learning.
1.2.1 Facebook
1.2.2 Twitter
1.2.3 YouTube
2. Language skills.
2.1 Defining language skills.
2.2 The effects of social media towards language skills: Reading,
Listening, Speaking and Writing.
3. Empirical studies.
3.1 Information resources management association USA’s Social media and networking.
3.2 I’Ecole de Management de Normandie (EM Normandie)’s Proceedings of The 3rd European Conference on Social Media.
4. Strategies Assessment
4.1 Questionnaires
4.2 Interviews
1. Social media and learning English
Accepting social media of university indicates a valuable resource for learning. The students find out a new channel of contact their friends and teachers, a valuable source of participation, information and materials. (Ajjan ; Hartshorne, 2008; Munoz ; Towner, 2009; Junco, 2011) In recent years, the students use social media for individual works, especially to create new content and add their comments (Seamean ; Tinti-Kane, 2013). In education the use of social media seems to be a better in term of control for instance use social media as effective tool to complement the work inside and outside the classroom so that improve student learning and accommodate teacher with student and student with student interaction (Ajjan ; Hartshorne, 2008). Butcher and Gibson (2010) indicated that Social media makes it easier for people to connect with each other. Using social media effectively may help learners to be more satisfied and develop intellectually, both inside and outside the classroom.
1.1 Defining effects of social media on learning English.
There are many researches to find out how social media influences students’ language learning, in most cases, positive results are more than negative ones. Considering based on the results of a study on the impact of social media on undergraduate students studying foreign languages (Bicen, 2015).
1.1.1 The advantages of social media in education.
The students have said that the positive aspects of social media in learning English language, and also said that social media allows them to follow professional English teachers and facilitate the use of speaking to improve their speak skills 4. Lee, McLoughlin (2010) mention that online social media help learners and professor to present themselves socially in an online environment and connect with other and this help learner to interact in a group learning process. Social media has attracted the millions attention o? people around the world. This same feature attracts students’ attention to the learning opportunities offered by educational institutions 7. However, using social media increases the learning experience. In fact, it allows students to participate in different learning activities on social media. It helps in supporting academic participation 9. Learning through social media Collaboration refers to learning method in which students work together in a group of students with the same goal 11. Using social media improves students’ skills and enables them to see a variety of perspectives on things. It also improves for communication skills and enables students to learn cultures from users around the world. Students also use social media to talk about homework with their peers and to get help with assignments (Reid, 2009).
1.1.2 The disadvantages of social media in education.
The growth dimension of students’ using social media cannot be measured. There has been observed that students devote more attention to social media than to their studies, making them poorly educated if they cannot manage time spent on social media (Osharive, 2015). There are also studies conducted by Maya (2015), uncovered that using social media can lead to lower academic performance. Researches have also uncovered that social media affects using English of students. They tend to use short-form of vocabulary to chat with friends and get used to it thereby replicating the same errors during examinations (Obi, Bulus, Adamu and Sala’at, 2012). Many researchers are starting to question about social media in a learning environment, stating that social media may prevent students from learning traditional literacy skills 3 or destroy the traditional roles of teachers and students 4. Gwenn Schurgin O’Keeffe and Kathleen Clarke-Pearson said that social media has disadvantage to use for instance accessing unsuitable content and not “understanding online privacy.” They also states that, in social media there are bullying and infringement, which familiar people may be supporting to happen these situations. (O’Keeffe and Clarke-Pearson, 2011) Another point to ponder is the impact that social media has on the evolution of English. Using a large number of abbreviations for example, their ability conveyed a lot of meaning while they are using fewer words and grammatical (Carter et al, 2014; Reed, 2015).
1.2 The effects of Social Media towards English Learning.
(Lomicka, 2008) suggest that Social Media It may help to reinforce the second language learning and is also a tool for improving the learning process. It has been reported that social media have progressed learning from regular classroom and also creates an atmosphere for learners to engage in exchange of ideas and resolve difficulties in learning second language. (Krashen, 1983) says that the EFL Saudi learners, they understand the linguistic characteristics of the person they interact with and record their shortcomings, by using the opportunity to communicate through social media.
1.2.1 Facebook
There are some students are hardly involved in the classroom. May be involved in creating a learning experience with their teachers, work with their colleagues, it also facilitates sharing of information and their opinions on Facebook. Facebook seems to be the best thing to use to communicate with students 29. In some schools, teachers believe that social media has positive affect. In other schools, teachers are not allowing students use social media because they feared that students would be addicted to social media too much, even if, they know that social media has advantage to learn of students (Ahn, 2010). Students who learn English through Facebook can improve grammar skills such as tense and structure of sentences, while Kajornboon (2013) identify that Facebook is the way of effective learning in studying and promoting learning English. In addition, it also focuses on several of experiences or knowledge to the students. From many studies reported found that, students can share ideas, knowledge and exchange information to each other, although they have different experience and knowledge while learning together. Although Facebook is used by many users, but students still are “biggest fans” Ellison et al’s recent paper reports that 94% of university students are Facebook users, spending 60-90 minutes a day to communicate with their friends for about 150-200 people.
1.2.2 Twitter
Junco, Heiberger, ; Loken (2010) found that using Twitter in the classroom to assign work to students. It provides opportunity to students to connect their friends across borders. In fact, they may not be able to meet each other, if they do not contact each other on Twitter. Twitter supports to use of acronyms because grammar can be a hindrance to non-native speakers, they can communicate through the use of EFL and ensure the correct understanding of the message they are trying to convey (Berns, 2012; Carter et al, 2014). Bake-Plock (2009) shared on his blog in the Twitter the positive experience in the classroom. Twitter is a great source for many skills assessments that are fundamental to learning and living. For example the ability to make mistakes and can accept criticism that helps to develop them better (post on May 14, 2009). Also, Ferriter et. al (2011) supports this concept and suggests that Twitter makes us aware of the strengths and weaknesses of individual students. This is called “differentiation as a learner.” In addition, he found that Twitter is a great source of exchanging ideas, asking questions, offering suggestions and celebrating successes. Chuah and Ch`ng (2013) supports this concept and mention that using Twitter to learn vocabularies improves the vocabulary ability of students. They also explored how Twitter helps students who are low proficiency students learn vocabulary. The results of this research show that the student’s vocabulary has a little bit improved. When researching related research, some researchers, for instance Bake-Plock (2009), Ferriter (2010), and Chuah and Ch`ng (2013), believe that Twitter helps students make new vocabulary both deliberately and coincidentally, which improves student skills.
1.2.3 YouTube
YouTube channel is a suitable way thing that is of great worth a tool for learning. The studies are raised that showed importantly finding that to gather educational videos to support more education. Meyer emphasized that the effectiveness of using educational video has a great influence. Especially used in educational courses as it can support the difficult concept, it may also attract students with low grades as well as high-achieving students 18. YouTube is a source of information related to various dimensions. It offers videos from a variety of fields. This makes it easy to find information in the study. In addition, the videos on YouTube are limited. It is suitable to make narrower for the classroom’s time. The researchers also verified that YouTube is part of the educational system. It can support self-learning 19, and language learning 20. Researchers have shown that using YouTube can make students more participation and collaboration between students in the classroom. It is also a learning strategy 21. According to Balcikanli, YouTube may be useful for students’ interests and needs for language by the understanding that authentic in spoken communication 22. In addition, YouTube can also be useful for those who are interested in studying the second language as well as listen to spoken accents, whether formal or informal. The learner can also learn new vocabulary or other language skills which the students are interested. McKinnon mentions that the movement, scene, feeling, and gesture showed on YouTube. It is an important part of the visual driving force for language learning 23. Some academician state that stress condition of students may be by reason of it is a combination of YouTube in the classroom that can reduce stress for students. Due to the new language learning can be more entertaining than educational activities 20.
2. Language skills.
According to the constructivist theory of language learning, foreign languages learning has a way of learning by building their own learning through experience, interaction, and reflections on how they interact with new educational situations (Vygotsky, 1978, 1979). Independent learning consists of analysis, awareness of appropriate, needs, learning strategies and the goal of the learner, and having the opportunity to review the knowledge, study guide and the steps to learn properly. It is possible that self-learning has been successful. Due to the teacher is a consultant, convenient facilities, and as a source of information to students. (see Voller, 1997, cited in Benson and Voller, 1997: 99-106).
2.1 Defining language skills.
Language learners need to have basic language skills. There are 4 skills: writing, reading, listening and speaking are all about spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. The four basic language skills are commonly regarded as writing, reading, speaking, and listening. However, the fact that people do not use language skills such as writing, reading, speaking or listening does not mean that they do not use the language, but they still use the language (Baker, 2001, p. 6). Language skills have four common skills that enable people to interact or communicate: writing, reading, speaking, and listening (Bailey, 1999).

2.2 The effects of social media towards language skills.