Chapter 3
From a sociological perspective, it’s been identified that human trafficking is the second-largest criminal industry in the world. Globalization and transnational migration trends have continued to augment economic disparities leading to an increase in the susceptibility of oppressed populations to human trafficking. Gender oppression and inequality have also contributed a lot towards human trafficking as well. The majority of the victims of human trafficking are from marginalized populations throughout the world. Combating human trafficking is relevant to the profession of social work which has the mission of social justice.
Macrosociology refers to sociological approaches and methods that examine large-scale patterns and trends within the overall social structure, system, and population. In case of human trafficking, macro sociologists are interested in such topics as to why and how specific groups of people become vulnerable to trafficking, which groups profit from trafficking, and why such mass and systematic exploitation is tolerated in many societies. On the other hand, Microsociology focuses on smaller groups, patterns, and trends, typically at the community level and in the context of the everyday lives and experiences of people. For instance, they examine the face-to-face encounters between victims and traffickers as well as others, the group networks established in trafficking, and an individual’s sense of agency and meaning across situations.
Identification and investigation of human trafficking cases is a complex undertaking for local law enforcement. Provided by strong leadership nationwide by federal government against human trafficking, the responses from local law enforcement remain essential to the successful identification and investigation of these crimes. Despite being well situated to identify such crime in existence, the complexity of these cases portrays significant obstacles. Responding adequately to human trafficking requires local officers to recognize potential deception and provide services to victims who may have had poor relationships or had been historically under-served with law enforcement. It may also be uncertain to intervene in sex and labor trafficking situations due to a belief that victims were conniving with their own victimization. Finally, local law enforcement response is further complicated based on citizenship status issues as many local agencies have decided not to inquire about citizen status during routine policing activities as a means of building trust and confidence in the local community.
Every country have their own sets of organizational structure ,but there are few people who play pivotal role in this .For example, there will be recruiters who will find the girls who need money or job they will lure them ,than comes transporter who will arrange transportation for this girls, next is public officials who will make fake documents of these girls who will be smuggled from the country and other officials who will also help them to clear immigration, once the girls reached the destination they will be distributed for the purpose and also in this structure comes investor who invested money for all this and the clients who buy these girls for their brothel, labor and etc. This is a simple organizational structure of human trafficking in any country.
It is known that USA is a country of higher education and opportunity but still there is a prevalent stigma associated with rampant child trafficking in this country. USA has seen a lot of human trafficking in the past years and they have passed the safe harbor for exploited youth act which prevents punishment for youth children getting engaged in such acts in this country. There is the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 in USA which prohibits children under the age of 18 years to participate in sex acts by force, pressure or deceive. There are many women from different countries which get transported to USA by exploitation although American women get arrested if they indulge in such countries. United States laws in 2013 has explained that it will protect the rights and integrity of children under the age of 18 years who have been sexually exploited and if they are first time offenders in the age group of 14-15 years. Polaris project was implemented in 2014 with the aim of protecting children involved in child labor and not only child exploitation. There has been a tremendous change in the life of people who has been victimized and there has been a tremendous improvement in their social life. There should be stronger laws to punish people involved in social crime and human female trafficking so that society can get a chance to evolve where people from different races, community and religion have a chance to meet. There are various macro level and micro level issues which are affecting society and leading to involvement of children in purposes of exploitation in the society for money and survival. This leads to a change in vision and demystifies the common belief of higher and advanced opportunity for people in this country. Gender has a big role to play in this vulnerable network with exploitation of the weaker sex for flesh trade and enjoyment leading to social stigma in the society.
Chapter 11
The need for human security has been recognized worldwide, targeting individuals and communities in which they belong. Therefore, we note that human security – although it is a goal of this millennium, it is an essential element of international security as well in the context of globalization. Human trafficking is one of the main offenses that undermine the national security, directly posing as a human security threat within communities, in which this phenomenon is present in violation of the rule of law, human dignity and fundamental human rights. As this phenomenon is present globally – each state plays a predominant and crucial role as the country of origin, transit or destination for victims – creating a need for an internationally need of effective cooperation among states to establish international and regional mechanisms to monitor the dimension of this phenomenon and to try to eliminate all real or potential risks that states are faced with to build up their security.
Consequences of the traditional security approach’s emphasis on targeting organized crime have been such that people involved in conducting crime scenes have been benefitted for various reasons. Prohibition from ownership of private weapons has made their game stronger. Organized crime therefore challenges the state’s monopoly on the use of force. Therefore, to sum it up it can be concluded that enhancing human security – especially during times of fiscal austerity and budget cuts – will require a new degree of co-operation and understanding both between the branches of government and between governments.

Three common global prostitution policy of the world are-
1. Prohibitonism – In some countries prostitution itself is illegal. The punishments for prostitution vary considerably. In some countries it can incur death penalty. While in some other jurisdiction it is a crime punishable with a prison sentence. In some other countries, it is a lesser administrative offense punishable only with fine
2. Abolitionism – In some countries there is no specific law prohibiting the exchange of sex for money, but in general most forms of procuring (pimping) are illegal. Some countries like Botswana, Algeria, Congo, Ethiopia have generally lawed against soliciting in a public place or advertising prostitution, making it difficult to engage in prostitution without breaking any law.
3. Neo-abolitism – In countries like Canada, Iceland, Ireland although prostitutes themselves commits no crime, clients and any third-party involvement is criminalized
There are several approaches which are used for preventing the spread of prostitution and prohibiting trafficking of females by operating in sting operations. There are various regions in America like Texas where enforcement officers are working in a collaborative manner with the police forces to trap the criminals involved in a network of prostitution like supplier for flesh trade, route and buyer people involved in sex trade. FBI has taken several steps to prevent the spread of sex rackets in USA. There are various traders and market enhancers and facilitators who abduct small children by force and throw them into sex trade. There are many African-American offenders who are involved in sex flesh trade. Many workers work as commercial sex workers in shops and have a license to practice it for earning money in society. There are various sting operations which prevent the spread of such illegal acts in the society. These sting operations involve the visit of enforcement officials in suspected streets, brothels and market shops where there may be evidence of starting up of sex network chains involved in sex trade. It was first conducted in Nashville, Tennessee in 1964. It is a decoy situation in which a female police officer volunteers herself for sex trade and catches the network of people involved in this sex prostitution racket. There is a recording of video and communication between buyer and trader of the decoy customer. There is a chance of alluring girls in shops on the pretext of providing money in exchange for nude photography and indecent scenes. They are captured in the form of video recordings. There are John schools where awareness and education provided in the form of moral awareness to prevent such circumstances of spread in the society.

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