Chapter One IntroductionBACKGROUND OF THE STUDYToday

Etudes

Chapter One
IntroductionBACKGROUND OF THE STUDYToday, it is evident that the security of global atmosphere is sprung more unpredictable. Many of the past capabilities are been lesser utilised nowadays, maybe lesser utilised for tomorrow. Moreover, there are approximately five to ten percent of citizens held as the hostage somewhere in the world every day. Sri Lanka was experienced everlasting security challenges in different forms. Such as JVP insurrection; Eelam War 1, 2, 3 and 4 etc. Moreover, an aftermath of 9th September attack, terrorism had reached a stage, and where it has multifaceted in nature and threat assessment has become challenging condition to the world.

After completing the fourth Eelam War, the government of Sri Lanka has taken steps to develop the country and the economy by understanding the value of the geographical locations in Sri Lanka. Moreover, this country is envisaged to become the “Wonder of Asia” which would present herself as Naval, Aviation, Commercial, Knowledge, and Energy hub, whilst becoming the key link between East and West. For that, the government has made initial arrangements to develop high exclusive economic value zones, especially in Colombo outskirt. In order to fulfil these national level interests, it is essential to ensure the security of the country.
There are different forces to assure the security of Sri Lanka, including the armed forces (Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Police, Special Task Force etc). To accomplish those national level development aspirations, all these special forces should determine to assist the government in multifaceted ways and should be fully prepared to employ their time and energy in all capacities.
The main concern for such a significant effort is, because it is evident that there will be no economic development, without proper concerns of security and stability, neither, investors would come and invest in the country. Therefore, maintaining the security becomes paramount important in every aspect of the country, as well as against all kind of security challenges. Moreover, in any situation, military has a key role to play in absorbing any type of possible shocks from different third parties and maintaining the stability to ensure an uninterrupted development. Further, different terrorist groups utilise modern techniques and unpredictable tactics, and they attempt to breed the terrorism throughout the world. Tactics that are utilised for the fight would not remain static or subject to predictive, yet, they can be continuously evolving and exploiting the diffusion innovative tactics, with the use of training, correct deployment, special equipment, advanced weapons and new technologies that offers the greatest return of the investment for future.
In Sri Lanka, Commandos are considered as the most elite force in the Sri Lanka Army, who are specially trained to act in any unpredictable situation. Therefore, it is vital the modernisation of Commandos Hostage Rescue (HR) and Counter Terrorist (CT) groups as a national level requirement and for the smooth functioning of the development activities of the country. Thus, this paper reviews the immediate requirement for HR and CT groups to effectively deal with emergencies in order to achieve the national level interests. In addition, fulfilment of modern training, equipment, and weapons are a time requirement in order to secure and maintain the strategic objectives of the nation. With all those concerns, the focus of this research is on the modernisation requirement of HR and CT of Sri Lanka Commandos to deal with future threats in Sri Lanka.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
After three decades of brutal war against the LTTE in Sri Lanka, people are possessing lasting peace, even though, some invisible endeavours still peregrinates the country. Especially some extreme religious groups and LTTE Diaspora, operating outside of the country attempt to make the country, because the Government of Sri Lanka is actively engaged in the process to constitute the country as the financial hub in the Indian Ocean. The Government has already commenced the development of the major ports in Colombo and Hambanthota and also the international airports in Katunayke and Matthala, which are all connected by roads and rails to the proposed Special Economic Zones.
In the meantime, when considering present threats in the world, terrorists’ activities are always unpredictable, as they appear in various ways to threaten the world. Commando Regiment (CR) is selected Armed Forces group to this study that is considered as the premier Special Operation Force (SOF) in Sri Lanka to employ against any types of future threats. At present, CR deploys various part of the country to act for any threats appear against the national security. Other than the national security at general level, there are five specific SOF priorities. They include; ensure SOF readiness, help the nation to win, continue to build the relationship, prepare for the future, and preservation of the force family (Joint special operation university research topic workshop, 2017).

However, it seems quite obvious that there indeed is a need for having a re-look at the way these CR groups (the selected groups for this study include HR and CT) are trained, and deployed, with special equipment and modern weapons, which is considered as a prime need for SOF to combating future threats. At the moment, the major problem that is facing by HR and CT groups are the shortfalls of air, ground and sea assets, which are required for speed, security and mobility for the sustained of the operations.
HR and CT groups are required to be flexible, accurate and to be able to react any problem within the objectives. For that HR and CT groups need insertion for entering the hostile areas, buildings or any other places and extraction, quickly after the mission to avoid casualties from hostile areas. These operations often involve deep penetration of hostile territory by air, water, or land. If these HR and CT groups need to get that assets from their own sister services, it takes longer time period and more procedures. Further, in the emergencies, even though HR and CT groups get the assets from other services, their situational awareness is lesser, and it would create circumstances that are more dangerous.
For an instance, the historical records regarding the operation of “Eagle Claw” mentioned that HR and CT groups have gone ahead with the aviation assets borrowed from other units and pilots, who had not trained extensively as similar to the SOFs. The ultimate result had been a failure of the operation. After the failure of that mission, the US government has established a form of Joint Services Operations Command (JSOC) and has given the responsibility for making sure that SOFs are having adequate equipment and resources that they need for missions. In addition to the aforementioned instance, when hostage takers have barricaded themselves in with the hostages, fortifying their location and blocking its access from any outside contact is difficult. The terrorists cannot leave the site nor they can receive reinforcements, they also have weapons that can harm others, and are threatening to use them (McMains ; Mullins, 2001, p. 39). It can include explosive booby traps, alarms, use of furniture to block entrances, chains and locks, and any other equipment that would aid the terrorists in securing themselves from any outside intervention. Therefore, to mitigate the risk, it is essential to see through the walls, and get clear pictures about the severity of hazards. Yet, currently, Sri Lankan HR and CT groups are lacking behind such type of technology.

Under such instance, it is vital to find out the level of HR and CT groups’ readiness, possible deployment, training, armed with sophisticated weapons and the adequacy of special equipment according to risks or threats, in order to fight against future threats. Accordingly, this study focuses on assessing the way that HR and CT operatives should be modernised according to dynamic, uncertain, full-spectrum environments, for ensuring the protection of the national interest. The problem statement of the study can be formed as below:
What is the need of modernisation of HR and CT groups of CR to deal with future threats in Sri Lanka?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study include:
To identify possible threats in the present and future context as a developing country.

To explore the adequacy of existing deployment, training, weapons and special equipment to address the future threats.

To study the lapses of present deployment of HR and CT groups of CR with considering the national interest.

To find out the possible proposal areas of modernisation, which HR and CT groups need to uplift their capabilities, especially in deployment, fulfilment of modern weapons, training and use of special equipment to address coming threats to Sri Lanka (even while combining the efforts of other sister services for , i.e. Air Force and Navy)
QUESTIONS OF THE STUDYBased on the objectives of the research, the research questions have formed below:
What are the possible threats in the present and future context as a developing country?
What is the adequacy of existing deployment, training, weapons and special equipment to address the future threats?
What are the lapses of present deployment of HR and CT groups of CR with considering the national interest?
What could be the possible proposal areas of modernisation, which HR and CT groups need to uplift their capabilities, especially in deployment, fulfilment of modern weapons, training and use of special equipment to address coming threats to Sri Lanka (even while combining the efforts of other sister services for , i.e. Air Force and Navy)?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Sri Lanka is ‘actively engaged in’ the process of becoming the regional financial hub, while being in a developing country. Moreover, Sri Lanka plans to incorporate its strategic location and leverage the connectivity to become the economic Hub of the Indian Ocean. These initiatives will transform Sri Lanka into a shipping, aviation and a logistics hub. In addition, Sri Lanka is also focusing on building the hard infrastructure such as the roads, water supply, power supply, etc. In order to achieve all these national level expectations, the security has become an paramount concern.
However, as a result of the globalisation, the nature of security threats are becoming gradually complex as they encompass an entire spectrum of war. Thus, a SOF plays an important role of ensuring security. It is precise that these highly trained and motivated troops with correct deployment, modern training modules, sophisticated weapons, and equipment are capable of operating in all types of terrain and weather conditions to seek favourable responses to deal with the sensitive situations. Therefore, it is an aspect of special concern for a country, to ensure whether SOF teams possess such competencies and required resources. In this era of modern warfare, even most of the powerful nations of the world have already incorporated counter strategies against unpredictable threats, while enriching their strengths in dimensions of force, time, space, virtual or cyberspace, over the adversary. It is therefore incumbent on any nation to have these forces fully geared up to confidently take up the challenges of the modern threatening environments with a sound backing or tested doctrine, sophisticated weapons, special equipment, modern training modules and employment concepts.
With all those concerns, the time has come to analyse and prevent the such incidents in the unpredictable warfare in Sri Lanka too. Therefore, understanding the current level of capabilities and adequacies resources to HR and CT groups in Sri Lanka, and then to proper the potential extent of modernisation is important. Since this research study discusses the said phenomenon, it is believed that this study will provide important information to the relevant authorities in the national security divisions, while guiding them to implement adequate level of changes and improvements to the operations and resources.
On the other hand, these types of military related literature are lack in Sri Lankan context. Therefore, other than the aforementioned practical significances, this research will carry academic significance as well. It is believed that future researchers will be able to refer this research as a secondary data source for their research studies.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In the current context, there are no thesis done and published on this subject. Thus, the researcher focused in conducting this research by interviews with experienced personnel, who are currently serving in the field. Moreover, the researcher referred some previous research data, done in other nations to understand the success and failures that they faced, while attempting to relate to the selected scenario.
The collection of data for this research was only from CR of Sri Lanka, who are engaging in special operations. However, in Sri Lankan context, the Air force and Navy also engage in certain special operations on counter terrorist. Thus, these teams have excluded from the data collection of this research.
Moreover, this research is more focused to HR and CT soldiers in CR, who are currently participating for HR and CT operations. The soldiers who engaged in such activities in the past have excluded from the research, who might have more opinions and experiences.
Equipment and advanced weapons used by other armies are restricted to publish. In addition, it is not possible to use such equipment and weapons in Sri Lanka, as there are budgetary constraints in formulating and executing security plans for the future.

The recommendations of the research have only derived from present perceptions or threats, and also from the secondary data collected from books, journal articles, and thesis done by other nations. However, based on those recommendations, the transformation of Sri Lanka with a strong security level to a developed country, from a developing country is a difficult task. As a third world country, it is impossible to establish a strong and perfectly capable SOF within month or year, and it takes a long time. On the other hand, whilst the modernisation of equipments and weapons are been discussed, the improvement of mental and physical fitness also come as a crucial factor that has not discussed in this research.
RESEARCH CHAPTER OUTLINEThis research studies the need of modernisation of HR and CT groups of CR to deal with future threats in Sri Lanka. The total research study has presented in five chapters. Among them, the first chapter provides an introduction to the research background and problem background. In addition, the first chapter presents the objectives of the research, research questions, the significance of the research, limitations of the research and at the end, the outline of the research chapters.
The second chapter provides the relevant literature on the research topic, and other secondary data. The literature includes theoretical and operational definitions to the study concepts, and the empirical evidences at the end.
The third chapter provides the information on research methodology. It starts with conceptual framework, and operationalisation, afterwards, the introductions to the research philosophy, research method, research design, data collection method, sampling technique and data analysis techniques.
The fourth chapter provides the analyses and interpretations of the collected data. Based on the research methodology, the analysis can be either qualitative or quantitative or a mixture of both methods.
Based on the analyses outcomes in the fourth chapter, the fifth chapter provides a summary to the key research findings, in aligning with the research objectives. At the end, the recommendations, and future research suggestions are provided in this chapter.
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Chapter Two
LITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides the relevant literature on the research topic, and other secondary data. The literature includes theoretical and operational definitions to the study concepts, and the empirical evidences at the end. These literature have adapted from different secondary sources, such as journal articles, books, internet materials, and other study and operational reviews etc.

NATIONAL SECURITY AND MILITARY CAPABILITYNATIONAL SECURITY
In today’s globalised nature where the information communication technology and other technologies have developed, ensuring national security has become a difficult task CITATION Tel06 l 1033 (Tellis ; Wills, 2006). National security refers to different aspects of protection of a nation, which includes, the military or defence advantage above any foreign state or groups of states, positive foreign connection positions, a defence position able to effectively oppose hostile or destructive actions from within or without, overt or covert CITATION Mil18 l 1033 (Military Factory, 2018). In order to ensure the national security successfully, the military capabilities are considered as paramount.
MILITARY CAPABILITY
Military capability is referred to the ability to accomplish a particular wartime goal, which can be the winning a battle or destroying a target CITATION Mil18 l 1033 (Military Factory, 2018). Military capability can be discussed under four main components, which include, force structure, modernisation, readiness, and sustainability.
Among them, ‘Force Structure’ refers to the size and composition of a particular unit. ‘Modernisation’ refers to the technical superiority of forces and units with equipments, weapons etc. ‘Readiness’ refers to the ability to present competencies required by the combatant commanders to perform their assigned missions, which in simply means the ability of the unit to deliver the assigned outputs. ‘Sustainability’ refers to the ability to maintain the required level of duration of operational activity to achieve the military objectives. It is a combination of force structure, technical capability and readiness CITATION Mil18 l 1033 (Military Factory, 2018).
Among those four main components of military capabilities, the focus of this research is on modernisation. In simply, the narrowed down path of the research area can be presented in figure 2.1 below.

National Security
Military Capability
Force Structure Capability
Readiness
Sustainability
Modernization Capability
National Security
Military Capability
Force Structure Capability
Readiness
Sustainability
Modernization Capability

Figure: SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 1 Summarising the Focused Research Area
MILITARY MODERNISATIONMilitary modernisation, as mentioned by Military Factory (2018) is about the technical competence of the forces. According to Tellis and Wills (2006), military modernisation is a response to the uncertainty, since it is focused on improving required technical competencies to meet and respond the probable uncertainties in future. However, it is considered as a complex process that makes fundamental changes to the military capacities for attaining the strategic objectives CITATION Min18 l 1033 (Ministry of Defence, 2018). Accordingly, through military modernisation, the military forces attempt in enhancing their qualitative levels by transforming into a professional force, well-trained, adequately equipped with modern systems of the technique and armament, contemporary and interoperable tools as well as proficient in accomplishing operation of a larger scale CITATION Min18 l 1033 (Ministry of Defence, 2018).
There are different factors affecting to the need of military modernisation, such as to face probable threats, ensure the sovereignty, protect the political status of the nation, to ensure the national security is met etc. For instances, China and India has worked on military modernisation, in order to face the emerging issues of sovereignty and status, and secessionist (or potential secessionist) movements. On the other hand, Taiwan has worked on military modernisation in order to face domestic politics and sclerotic bureaucratic processes CITATION Tel06 l 1033 (Tellis ; Wills, 2006).
The concept of modernisation is based on the main strategic concepts such as Military Strategy, Long-Term Development Plan, Tables of Organization and Equipments (TOP), Directive of the Ministry of Defence on the basis of which, the construction of the future professional force is anticipated, and it can be based on short-term, medium-term, and long-term objectives CITATION Min18 l 1033 (Ministry of Defence, 2018).
THE OPERATIONS OF SOFAmong different military forces, SOF stands in a key place. There are five SOF’s priorities that include ensuring SOF readiness, helping the nation to win, continuing to build relationships, preparing for the future, and preserving of force families (Joint special operation university research topic workshop, 2017). Special operations require unique modes of employment, tactics, techniques, procedures, and equipment. They are often conducted in hostile, denied, or politically and or diplomatically sensitive environments (Joint publication of Special operations, 2014).
HR and CT operations are sensitive crisis response missions in response to terrorist threat and incident (Joint publication of Special operations, 2014). HR and CT operations require unconventional techniques, skills and equipment and require close synchronization and coordination (UN Peacekeeping Missions’ Military Special Forces Manual, 2015).
Among different focuses of SOF (especially HR and CT groups), this research attempts to emphasize the requirement of special equipment ; weapons to counter the present threats, ; unpredictable threats, and the requirement of developing capabilities through modern equipment ; weapons, while assessing the measures taken by other military forces to counter the future threats.
IDENTIFYING THE OPERATIONAL WEAKNESSES AND REQUIREMENT FOR MODERNISATION (IN COMPARISON TO INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FORCES)
As mentioned above, since HR and CT forces are considered under SOF, their operations are critical for the present and future security of the country. However, compared to the HR and CT forces in other countries, some critical aspects require modernisation.
For instances, the US highly considers about long-term national security, and the power they can gain over other countries of the world. Not only the US, the other giant countries of the world attempt to enhance their power over other countries through different technologies, due to which, no country can predict the future threats they could occur locally and internationally. Under such circumstances, the US Army, having most updated technical capabilities with them, still considers its future modernization and force structure options, while comparing and contrasting its weapon system, personnel management policies, operational concepts and organization with those of other armies (Gorden, Mastumura, Alter, ; Lander, 2013). It is essential for Sri Lankan military teams to consider the same aspects for modernisation as well, since, in terms of weapons and other policies, the techniques of Sri Lankan militaries are lower than US militaries.

According to a recent statement made by China’s President (cum the Chairman of the Central Military Commission) Xi Jinping, China, as a developed global giant anticipate peace, yet would highly consider maintaining the legitimate rights, without compromising key national interests in any situation. One precise military goal that is probable to attend by China could be the issues regarding the sea areas that should be under their sovereign territory, yet are disputed by other countries at the moment. The outlined issues of China’s military include system blockades, structural inconsistencies, and policy issues that confine the creation of national defence and the armed forces. Another key military issue of China includes disengagement among local military forces. In parallel to these concerns, China has doubled the budget on military with intentions of protecting national rights and interests in its global presence, and has focused on modernising its military forces CITATION Tie14 l 1033 (Tiezzi, 2014). This condition of China is mostly similar to Sri Lanka as well. Even though Sri Lanka is not similar to China in its extent, and in its strength, the threats would be more or less similar, such as sea border issues, and the potential threats to natural resources such as natural harbours, forests etc. It again stresses that military modernisation is essential for Sri Lanka as well.
More elaborative manner, in order to address challenging types of national level concerns as mentioned in above paragraph number 42, China’s President stresses the need of reforming and making innovations within People’s Liberation Army of China (PLA), in order to institute a new chapter for national defence and the armed forces. This includes the modernisation of China’s military technology, as well as the entire military structure CITATION Tie14 l 1033 (Tiezzi, 2014). The modernised aspects of China’s military include seven key strategic areas such as information technology, laser technology, automation ; manufacturing technology, space, energy, biotechnology, and advanced materials CITATION Ras13 l 1033 (Raska, 2013). The same areas can be considered for modernising the HR and CT teams of CR, Sri Lanka, as the key strategic areas are mostly similar and critical for Sri Lankan military as well. Due to the successful consequences of Chinese military modernisation, China has become the world’s third largest military exporter CITATION SPH18 l 1033 (SPH Websites, 2018).
Another example would be the modernisation of Indian Army. Indian army has made skilful in creating their own weapons and troops, and exporting military technology, with inclusive of BrahMos missiles to smaller Asian countries CITATION SPH18 l 1033 (SPH Websites, 2018). Yet, the military technologies are not adequate, as even for the BrahMos missiles made by India, approximately 65% of the components are imported. Moreover, it has been proved that locally made military equipments such as light combat aircraft, Arjun tanks, and even bullet-proof jackets are not functioning properly, especially in sensitive borders of China or Pakistan CITATION SPH18 l 1033 (SPH Websites, 2018). Thus, even along with such higher technologies compared to Sri Lanka, Indian military experiences lower level of modernisation at the moment, with higher modernisation needs. This context is similar to Sri Lanka, where there can be hardly seen the skills and technologies for a locally based military resources.
Moreover, when considering a similar status to Sri Lankan army, the Indian army can be considered. The Indian Army is the third largest army in the world in terms of the sheer number of personnel. Yet, its capacity to undertake military operations optimally in the multi-domain, technology-dominated battlefield of the future is questionable. The Indian Army essentially remains a force largely organised, equipped and trained to fight wars of the past. Moreover, as India rises in stature, economically and technologically, towards a more eminent position in the region and the world, it has to concurrently build on its military power, in the modern context, to thwart the threats and challenges that it is likely to face along the way from the potential adversaries. Having said that, it is not as if the Army cannot carry out its role and tasks successfully if it is provided the requisite means to do so. And so, it seems almost imperative that the Army be modernised expeditiously if it has to be prepared to take on the security challenges of the future CITATION Cam171 l 1033 (Campose, 2017). Accordingly, it is important for Sri Lankan army also to be modernised, in order to be protective from internal and external threats, as for sometimes, India itself can be a threat to the sovereignty of Sri Lanka.
POTENTIAL FUTURE THREATS AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY
Although Sri Lanka today is one of the most stable and secure countries in the region, it needs to be understood that the national security is still crucial. For an instance, less than nine years ago, LTTE was defeated and eliminated, yet the probabilities of emerging a similar kind of terrorist group exists. Therefore, while engaging in rapid post conflict economic development, it is required for the security forces and law enforcement agencies to remain vigilant about emerging threats.

Of all the possible counter measures to terrorism, enhancing physical security would seem to be the least controversial. Unlike political, economic, and military measures, which can become entangled in complex policy debates, protecting facilities and airlines from terrorists’ attacks should straightforward: erect more barriers around buildings, increase security at airports, develop states-of-the-art technology to prevent terrorists incidents. However, physical security has become increasingly difficult in recent years. The technological race against terrorists is never-ending: as new devices are designed and installed to detect weapons or protect against attack, the terrorists change tactics or use more sophisticated weapons to defeat them (Simon 1990).
Now that the unconventional threat is so closely linked to national defence, military leaders must be trained to recognize the wider problem. Military organizations must be able to work across a much broader field of activities than those of the conventional military setting. The merging of conventional and unconventional capability and the ability of terrorists to strike at the operational and strategic levels demands a new doctrinal context. In general, the conventional warfare is a kind of a direct attack against the forces. Such direct attacks are comparatively easy to identify and to address. In contrast, unconventional warfare is kind of an indirect approach, whereas different parties get together and use proxy force to attack the forces. The military cannot be saved to only fight the next world war. Leaders need to be trained to recognize the warning signs and to expand their approaches to this new environment. It is necessary to provide them the tools to prevent the benefits of unconventional conflict by adapting to the current reality (Meigs, 2003).
Rapid advances in technology, changing capabilities of the conventional Army, operational experience across the spectrum of conflict, and changes in the threat over the past decade have redefined the operational requirements for SOF. However, Unconventional Warfare (UW) will continue to be the unique purview of SOF in foreseeable future. It is imperative that Army SOF community examines the organization as a whole, to see where changes are needed, and then aggressively transform the force to meet these needs (Ott, 2002).

Unless the responding officers are trained and equipped appropriately, it is highly likely that they will be unable to protect themselves, and the community. Reliance upon a police tactical team even in those jurisdictions where police are armed can only be effective if that capability can respond to multiple threats within a very short time (Rourke, 2010). Squad and soldiers modernization programs are currently underway around the world. Some of the programs do not have widely available information (Gorden, Mastumura, Alter, ; Lander, 2013).

Therefore, use of force training with extensive training in the utilization of all special weapons is extremely critical. Lethal and non-lethal forces are in high risk areas for litigation with high monetary awards to plaintiffs (Ross, 2000). SOF faces several challenges as well as opportunities in adapting to a future security environment that will likely be dominated by the continuation and possible intensification of violent Islamic radicalism, the potential rise of the People’s Republic of China as a more aggressive political-military competitor of the United States, and the global proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) (in particular nuclear weapons) (Martinage 2009).
Origin of the hostage rescue and counter terrorists units were in Israel, nearly in 1957. The Israel army raised its Commando forces, who are called as Sayare Matkal (Mahadevan, 2012). In 1960, the Palestine began to carry out airline hijackings, and for that, Israel have understood the potential threat that could occur in near future and trained the forces accordingly. In 1972, they carried out first anti hijacking Commando assault on hijacked aircraft, by employing sixteen soldiers, disguised as fuel technicians, approached airliners to deceive and got information. While the negotiation going on, assault troops moved and upon pre-arranged signal, they stormed to aircraft through different entrances (Mahadevan, 2012).

In September 1972, eight Palestine terrorists infiltrated Olympic Game Village in Munich, Germany and took nine Israel athletes hostage (Mahadevan, 2012). This rescue operation went wrong, since the snipers had been incorrectly briefed that. When they realized the real situation, they could not have radios. The terrorists killed all hostages. That demonstrated that Hostage Rescue Operation required specific Intelligence and training, particularly firearms usages. Thus, in Germany, the consequences of not having a capable counterterrorist capability were tragically exposed to the world. Same situations are common for Sri Lankan military as well, when considering the severity of the potential future threats (Mahadevan, 2012).

Hostage Rescue missions are some of the most hazardous and demanding tactical operations for any military forces in the world. To success, they require a great combination of training and planning and must be carefully executed, because of this, those teams are among the most elite units in the world. They seek to adopt and incorporate tactics and techniques that work and learn from any mistake that were made so far, and they can avoid repeating them. To conduct HR and CT missions, it is essential to adopt the principles such as surprise, intelligence, operator’s skill, deception, and speed (Mahadevan, 2012).

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKThe research scope is about the modernisation of HR and CT groups of CR in Sri Lanka, in order to deal with potential future threats in the country. Accordingly, the independent variable becomes the modernisation of HR and CT groups. On the other hand, the dependent variable becomes the actions against future threats. Based on these two main variables, the conceptual framework is depicted below.
Modernization of HR ; CT Groups
Special Equipment
Sophisticated Weapons
Trainings
Potential Future Threats
Terrorist Attacks
Hostage Rescues
Threats from Other Countries
Unconventional Warfare
Modernization of HR ; CT Groups
Special Equipment
Sophisticated Weapons
Trainings
Potential Future Threats
Terrorist Attacks
Hostage Rescues
Threats from Other Countries
Unconventional Warfare

Figure: 2 Conceptual Framework (Source: Developed by the Author)
CHAPTER SUMMARYThis chapter presented the theoretical background of the research variables. It has explained the idea behind military modernisation, as technical competence of the forces (Military Factory, 2018). It is further considered as a response to the uncertainty, as it is aimed at improving the present facilities. Through military modernisation, the military forces attempt in enhancing their qualitative levels by transforming into a professional force, well-trained, adequately equipped with modern systems of the technique and armament, contemporary and interoperable tools as well as proficient in accomplishing operation of a larger scale (Ministry of Defence, 2018). In Sri Lanka, even though the HR and CT operations are considered as highly significant, their modernisation found to be lack. This condition has further elaborated through international comparisons as well. Alternatively, the need for military modernisation was assessed through the discussions of potential future threats, i.e. local, regional and other international threats. According to all the theoretical contexts presented in the chapter, the conceptual framework has depicted, which contains modernisation of HR ; CT groups as the independent variable (evaluated by special equipment, sophisticated weapons, and trainings), while potential future threats as the dependent variable (evaluated by terrorists attacks, hostage rescues, threats from other countries, and unconventional war conditions).
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Chapter Three
Methodology
INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides the information on research methodology. It starts with the conceptual framework, and operationalisation. Afterwards, it presents introductions to the research philosophy, research method, research design, data collection method, sampling technique and data analysis techniques.

OPERATIONALISATIONThe operationalisation of the variables, which were identified and presented in above figure 2.1 is presented here in table 3.1 below. It shows the dimensions that are considered to assess the main variables, and the questions that derive answers for the particular variables.
Table STYLEREF 1 s 3. SEQ Table * ARABIC s 1 1: Operationalisation of VariablesVariable Dimension Questions
Independent – Modernization of HR ; CT Groups Special Equipments 3
Sophisticated Weapons 4
Trainings 5
Dependent – Potential Future Threats Terrorist Attacks 6
Hostage Rescues 7
Threats from Other Countries 8
Unconventional Warfare 9
RESEARCH PHILOSOPHYThere are three main research philosophies as positivism, interpretivism, and realism CITATION Sau094 l 1033 (Saunders, Lewis, ; Thornhill, 2009). Positivism philosophy means the studies regarding natural reality to create generalisations. Critical realism philosophy means the studies regarding the experiences and senses. Interpretivism philosophy means the studies regarding different individual perceptions.

Among them, this research follows the realism philosophy. Accordingly, the actual scenario has been studied without any biases from researcher’s perceptions. However, for the recommendations and suggestions, the researcher’s perceptions have been considered, as the researcher himself works in the actual scenario.
RESEARCH METHODThere are two main research methods as qualitative and quantitative CITATION Sau094 l 1033 (Saunders, Lewis, ; Thornhill, 2009). Qualitative method means the studies that focus on non-numerical data and results. In contrast, the quantitative method means the studies that focus on numerical data and results. Qualitative method is based on more interpretations, explanations and data categories, while quantitative method is based on more statistics, graphs, charts etc.

This research follows the qualitative method. Accordingly, the data collection and analysis are based on interview data, rather than statistical data.

RESEARCH DESIGNThere are two main research design methods as exploratory and explanatory CITATION Sau094 l 1033 (Saunders, Lewis, ; Thornhill, 2009). Exploratory design is followed, when the problem of the research is not clear, while explanatory design is followed to explain the relationship between the causes of a known problem. This research follows the explanatory design method. However, rather than using hypotheses, the relationships have assessed through different perceptions and explanations.
DATA COLLECTION METHODData collection can be done in two different ways as primary data and secondary data collection. Primary data means the first hand data that are to be collected by research respondents in the sample. The researcher has to participate in observations, meeting ; discussing with people, conducting surveys, interviews, own experiments etc in order to collect primary data. Accordingly, primary data directly serves the scope and the need of the research, even though it takes a longer time and higher amount of resources to collect primary data originally for the research CITATION Sau16 l 1033 (Saunders, Lewis, ; Thornhill, 2016).
Secondary data are the already available data, which have collected from previous military reports, journals, books, websites etc. Secondary data can include raw data, as well as published summaries, which are used by other researchers and practitioners for their conclusions and discussions. Since the secondary data is already available, the time for collection of secondary data is lesser, with minimal required resources. However, the key problem attached with the secondary data is that they may not always match with the research requirement and research scope properly.

SAMPLINGThe selected population for the research include HR and CT groups of CR, Sri Lanka. Among them, a sample of 30 members have selected according to judgemental sampling method, by giving priority to HR and CT members, who are actively in operation, and non-commission officers. The sample contains three main groups of CR officers in Colombo Harbour, Katunayake Airport, and Mattala Airport, and each group contains 9 respondents. In addition, 3 numbers of retired HR and CT members in Sri Lankan army are also considered. Thus, the total sample size is 30 participants.
The data are collected through an interview questionnaire distributed among the selected sample. The questionnaire has designed with open ended questions, and given commonly to all the sample participants.
DATA ANALYSIS METHODThe interview data have analysed through content analysis technique, based on qualitative methodology. The responses have been identified under different groups, and they have coded for better explanations.
CHAPTER SUMMARYThis chapter presented the methodology of the research. It starts with the operationalisation to the research variables. Afterwards, it reveals that this research is based on realism philosophy, in a qualitative method. The design of this research is explanatory design method, to which, primary data have collected through interviews, and secondary data through different Internet sources, journals, military reports etc. The primary data have collected from a sample of 30 persons selected according to the judgemental sampling method. Qualitative content analysis technique has used for analysing data.
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CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides the analyses and interpretations of the collected data. Based on the research methodology, the analysis has done according to qualitative method, with some minimal quantitative data presentation as well.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
Reliability and validity are necessary to ensure the accuracy of the research results. To ensure the reliability and validity of the study, appropriate levels of accuracy were applied in the research process. According to Uma and Roger (2013), reliability improves consistency, repeatability and replication. The validity refers to the accuracy of the data set. Accordingly, procedures have been implemented to improve both the validity and reliability. Content analysis methods such as descriptive validity, explanatory validity, theoretical health, and trustworthiness were used to improve the reliability and validity of this the study.

Descriptive validity refers to the correctness and objectivity of the collected data. Understanding the participants of the study is referred to as interpretive validity. Theoretical validity refers to the degree to which the data aids the theoretical lens that is selected for the study. It focuses on assessing the validity of researchers’ concepts and theorized links among the concepts in context along with the phenomenon of the study (Uma & Roger, 2013).

In contradiction of the quantitative research studies, qualitative research aims at dependability, conformability, transferability, and credibility to prove the accuracy of data. Dependability is about the degree to which the findings can be repeated and are consistent. Most of the answers of the participants of this research found to be repeating in the discussions of some more participants, which means that there was a conformability of the responses, so that it was possible to depend on them for further analyses.
Transferability is about degree to which the results and findings of this study can be used and applied to another context. The focused respondents group of this research is the HR and CT members in the Commando Regiment of Special Task Force of Sri Lanka Army. They can be considered as the group who needs modernised techniques and equipments for their operations, as those operations are complex and critical than the others. Since the research has done in the most critical aspect of the population, it is believed that it can be easily applied and referred for any other group in the Armed Forces.
Credibility is about the general acceptable nature. As similar to the dependability and conformability, the credibility of the data collected for this can be mentioned as high, as the most common facts can be generally accepted in the research. According to the all above mentioned reliability and validity assessments, the validity and reliability of the data of this qualitative research can be mentioned as high.
ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE PROFILE
The sample profile has analysed in four main categories, i.e. by considering the gender, age, location, and working category of the sample respondents. As per the figure: 3 below, the gender of the sample respondents shows that all the respondents are in HR and CT operations are males. The age analysis as in figure: 4 shows that the majority is in the age category of 30-40 years, as it is apparent that most of the currently working HR and CT members are in the middle age category. However, another 33% representation of 40-50 year category HR and CT members also have noted. There is only one respondent from the age category of 50-60 years, as anyway he is not working currently, but retired.
The sample representation according to the location is similar in the three selected locations, as the researcher judgementally selected equal number of respondents from the three locations. The 90% of the majority of the sample contains currently working HR and CT members, as they were the most convenient accessible respondents for the researcher. Due to the difficulty of accessing retired HR and CT members, their representation is minimal, and only 10%.

Figure: 3 Gender Analysis Figure: 4 Age Analysis

Source: Interview DataSource: Interview Data
Figure: 5 Location Analysis Figure: 6 Category Analysis
Source: Interview DataSource: Interview Data
In order to proceed with the qualitative data analysis with the responses of 30 number of persons, the researcher coded the respondents as below, and their general individual information are summarised in table 4.1.
Table STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC s 1 1: Sample Respondents Coding and Details
Code Working category Location Age
O01 In operation Colombo 30-40 yrsO02 In operation Colombo 30-40 yrsO03 In operation Colombo 30-40 yrsO04 In operation Colombo 30-40 yrsO05 In operation Colombo 30-40 yrsO06 In operation Colombo 40-50 yrsO07 In operation Colombo 30-40 yrsO08 In operation Colombo 40-50 yrsO09 In operation Katunayake30-40 yrsO10 In operation Katunayake30-40 yrsO11 In operation Katunayake40-50 yrsO12 In operation Katunayake40-50 yrsO13 In operation Katunayake40-50 yrsO14 In operation Katunayake40-50 yrsO15 In operation Katunayake40-50 yrsO16 In operation Katunayake30-40 yrsO17 In operation Mattala30-40 yrsO18 In operation Mattala30-40 yrsO19 In operation Mattala30-40 yrsO20 In operation Mattala30-40 yrsO21 In operation Mattala30-40 yrsO22 In operation Mattala30-40 yrsO23 In operation Mattala30-40 yrsO24 In operation Mattala40-50 yrsR25 Retired Mattala40-50 yrsR26 Retired Colombo 50-60 yrsO27 In operation Colombo 30-40 yrsR28 Retired Katunayake40-50 yrsO29 In operation Katunayake30-40 yrsO30 In operation Mattala30-40 yrs
Source: Interview Data

ANALYSIS OF INTERVIEW FINDINGS The interview analyses based on the content analysis method are summarised below, under separate variables considered in the research.
MILITARY CAPABILITY
As it was mentioned in the literature review, military capability was mentioned as the ability to accomplish a particular wartime goal, which can be the winning a battle or destroying a target, which required four main aspects as force structure, modernisation, readiness, and sustainability. Based on that, the first interview question asked from respondents is about their views on the most required aspect that needs improvements.
Respondent O09 has replied that modernisation, sustainability and readiness are required for improving military capability. Similarly, respondent O17 has mentioned that modernisation and readiness are the most important aspects to be achieved. Respondent O27 has mentioned that “modernisation is the most important factor to achieve, and if it is achieved, others can achieve”, while the similar answer has been provided by another 26 number of respondents in the sample. Respondent O16 phrase the same view in different way as “without modernisation, cannot achieve other factors”. According to all 30 responses from the sample respondents, the modernisation was highlighted as the primary and most vital factor to be considered when improving military capability.
At the same time, it was asked from the respondents that what are their views on current issues due to lack of modernisation in HR and CT groups as the second interview question. Respondent O10 has responded that “it is difficult to fight with modern threats come from the opponents” due to the lack of modernisation. The same response has mentioned by 11 other respondents including O02, O03, O06, O07, O13, O14, O19 R25, R26, O27 and O29. According to respondent O09 and O17, lack of modernisation cause shortages of equipments, which is a barrier to accomplish the assigned missions, and this view has been highlighted by 4 other respondents including O08, O11, O12, O30. The similar idea has worded by respondent O01 as “we are lagging behind the modern technology to accomplish mission”. According to respondent O16, lack of modernisation cause “…too much timing for planning assigned mission”, and it has been verified by the respondent R28. According to respondent O05, O15, O20, O21, O22, and O23, lack of modernisation causes more damages to properties and people in wartime situations. Respondent O18 mentioned that it makes it difficult to identify the real threat, and O04 mentioned that victims become more vulnerable due to lack of modernisation. Thus, there are different and significant issues due to the lack of modernisation of military capabilities. Accordingly, it highlighted that the discussions of this research is valid, as this research focuses on HR and CT groups modernisation for dealing with future threats.

SOPHISTICATED EQUIPMENTS
The third interview question was about the need of sophisticated equipments as part of military modernisation. Respondent O05 has mentioned that in terms of equipments, “we need light weight bullet proof jackets, secure communication equipments (radio set with hand free mike), utility vehicle (RAMP) for exertion /insertion in to the building and air craft, decontamination kits for chemical attack etc”. This idea was further stressed by the majority of the respondents including O02, O03, O04, O16, O18, R26 and almost all the others.
According to the viewpoint of O01, and O17, the need is for the “thermal image cameras, night vision, binocular with laser range finders, cable camera, robot vehicle to detect explosives, drone, spy camera, electronic sound detecting devices, utility vehicles (RAMP vehicles) and anti bugging devices”. While adding to the same statement of O01, O10 mentioned that other than what O01 mentioned, the shortfalls should immediately fulfilled for decontamination kits for chemical attacks. Respondent O09 has mentioned a general view saying “special equipment should numerically sufficient to fulfil assigned roles, functions, and missions in designated areas”.
SOPHISTICATED WEAPONS
The fourth interview question was about the sophisticated weapons. Respondent O03, O10 and O17 mentioned that “we need more sophisticated weapons like corner shot gun, sniper weapons with night capability, M4 carbine rifles, AIAW silencer sniper weapons, browning high power P-35 pistols, Glock 19 pistols, and HKMP5A3 weapons with night sight and with laser”. The same answer has proved by all the other respondents as well. Respondent O09 adds to these ideas that it is important to perform best when weapons and supplies are superior to those of the most capable prospective opponents. Overall, almost all the respondents have highlighted the same fact regarding sophisticated weapons for military modernisation.

TRAINING
The fifth interview question was about the training for modernisation. According to respondent O10, it is important to have trainings with new tactics regarding the needs of modernisation. Almost all the other respondents including O01, O02, O04, O05, O16, O18, O19 etc explain this view by mentioning that continuous training is essential for HR & CT teams, and they should continue with the new technology, equipment and weapons. As O17 stated, “we already conducting training, field exercises etc, but we need new technology and more training with other nations who qualified for these missions”. The same idea has presented by respondent O09 mentioning that “future threats cannot predictable. Therefore, continuous training is essential thing for HR & CT teams. It should continue with the new technology, equipment and weapon”. Thus, almost all the respondents have highlighted the same fact regarding the training requirements for military modernisation.

After considering the separate aspects that are to be focused through military modernisation, the importance of military modernisation (as a whole), to different future threats has been discussed.

USEFULNESS OF MODERNISATION TO DEAL WITH FUTURE TERRORIST ATTACKS
In terms of applications of the military modernisation as a whole to deal with future terrorist attacks, the sixth interview question was framed. According to the responses of the respondents, 12 respondents including O004, and O10 replied that military modernisation can avoid confusions, so that the terrorist attacks can be controlled properly. Another 16 respondents including O01, O02, O16, O17, and O18 replied that military modernisation can mitigate terrorist risks in the future. Respondent O05 mentioned in general that military modernisation will protect national interest so that there will not be harms from terrorist attacks. Respondent O09 has mentioned an explanative response saying that “While we focus on the challenges of today, we must also prepare for an uncertain, dynamic, and rapidly evolving future. We will do this through innovative and critical thinking, experimentation, and exercises that identify future challenges and opportunities, and create strategic solutions and options for our leaders. Therefore modernisation is utmost important”.
USEFULNESS OF MODERNISATION TO DEAL WITH FUTURE HOSTAGE RESCUES
The seventh question was about the applications of the military modernisation as a whole to deal with future hostage rescues. According to the responses of almost all the respondents, as the hostage rescues is a sensitive activity done by HR and CT teams, the modernised techniques, equipments, trainings etc are highly imperative. This idea can be quoted from R25 who mentioned that “HR & CT mission is very complex and conduct in sensitive environment. Therefore, need to employ skilful members. Through the modernisation, we will able to overcome any issues pertain to mission”. As stated by respondent O09, “This type of operations need highly advanced planning, synchronisation, integrated skills, weapons and equipment. These types of operation conduct in highly sensitive environments. Therefore, to mitigate the risk modernisation required”.
USEFULNESS OF MODERNISATION TO DEAL WITH FUTURE THREATS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES
The eighth question was about the applications of the military modernisation as a whole to deal with future threats from other countries. According to the response given by respondent O09, “because of globalization, and strategic location of Sri Lanka, we can predict that threat may come from outside. Therefore need to modernise”. This same idea has presented by 6 more respondents including respondent O02, O07, O17, R25, R26, and R28. Almost all the other respondents stressed that when the modernisation is available, the mitigation of external threats is possible. It can be quoted from the statement made by O01 as, “if we have modern equipment and weapons can addressed any outside threat”.
USEFULNESS OF MODERNISATION TO DEAL WITH FUTURE UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE
The ninth question was about the applications of the military modernisation as a whole to deal with future unconventional warfare. Respondent O09 mentioned that “to fight unconventional warfare we need advanced weaponry and special equipment”. The same idea has proved by all the other respondents as well.
USEFULNESS OF MODERNISATION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY
The tenth question was about the applications of the military modernisation as a whole to deal with national security as a whole. The view of almost all the respondents is that, since the national security is a vital aspect, it is important to secure it, and in order to secure it in this developed and volatile world, the modernisation of military capability is essential for HR and CT groups. This idea can be quoted from respondent O22; “national security is utmost important. Without security we cannot survive, cannot achieve national interest and there is no development also. To support the strategic level as military our task is to protect this country. Without proper items and old equipment we cannot fight modern battle. My view is we need modernisation quickly”. A similar idea, but with more comparisons to the other regional and international armies has presented by respondent O09 saying that “elite forces are a vital component of any of the military organization in the world. The use of elite forces which is capable, equipped and trained to undertake special missions is not a new concept. By today, due to the proliferation of asymmetric threats posed by many non-state actors and terrorist groups, elite forces has become a high value asset in any military across the world. Therefore, to maintain to that level, modernization is essential”.
The overall responses highlighted that military modernisation is important in achieving national security as a whole.
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
Other than to the above discussed interview questions, the respondents were openly invited for additional comments. Some of the respondents including O01, O06, O10, O17, and O21 mentioned that it is needed to establish joint special force command structure. Respondent O04 mentioned another view saying “according to my view, we need to formulate special operation doctrine, special command structure for special operation mission; speedy insertion and exertion system with incorporate with sister services and sophisticate mobility”. Some similar ideas to the idea of O04 have presented by O05, O09, O12, O15, O18, O20, R25, and O29.
CHAPTER SUMMARYThis chapter presented the findings of the interview results. Initially, the sample profile has been presented with some demographic information of the respondents, according to which, the sample contained only males, who were majorly in the age group of 30-40 years, and the majority were currently in operations, while a smaller percentages of retired officers were also there. The respondents represented three locations as Colombo, Katunayake, and Mattala. After coding the respondents, their interview responses were analysed, and all agreed that current level of military capability is not adequate due to less modernisation. On the other hand, the national security found to be lower due to lack of modernisation. Therefore, all the comments and responses highlighted that if the modernisation is higher and adequate, the national security also can be secured.
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Chapter Five
Findings and DiscussionsINTRODUCTION
This chapter provides a summary to the findings gathered through the research interviews in chapter four. The findings regarding each interview question has been summarised, after providing a summary to the demographic variables.
FINDINGS ON SAMPLE PROFILE
This research collected data from interviewing 30 number of HR and CT members in SOF of CR in Sri Lanka Army. The respondents were selected from three different locations in Colombo, Katunayake and Mattala, and all of them were males, who were representing the majority age group of 30-40 years. They were coded from O01 to O24, and also as O27, O29 and O30 for all the respondents working currently in SOF, and R25, R26, and R28 for the retired respondents.
FINDINGS ON INTERVIEW RESULTS
According to the responses regarding the improvements of military capability of HR and CT groups, all 30 respondents highlighted modernisation as the primary and most vital factor to be considered when improving military capability. However, due to the lack of modernisation at present, few issues have been highlighted as:
Difficulty of fighting with modern threats of opponents.

Difficulty of properly accomplishing missions due to lack of equipment.

Higher time consumption for missions planning, higher damages to properties and people in wartime.

Difficulty in pre-identifying the threats.

Higher vulnerability of victims.
Considering the aforementioned issues, it was determined that military modernisation as essential and aspects of making military modernisation were found as equipments, weapons and training.
In terms of equipment, the modernisation was required as identified for light weight bullet proof jackets, secure communication equipments (radio set with hand free mike), utility vehicle (RAMP) for exertion /insertion in to the building and air craft, decontamination kits for chemical attack, thermal image cameras, night vision, binocular with laser range finders, cable camera, robot vehicle to detect explosives, drone, spy camera, electronic sound detecting devices, and anti-bugging devices.
In terms of weapons, the modernisation was required as identified for corner shot gun, sniper weapons with night capability, M4 carbine rifles, AIAW silencer sniper weapons, browning high power P-35 pistols, Glock 19 pistols, and HKMP5A3 weapons with night sight and with laser.
In terms of training, the modernisation was required as identified for continuous training with the new technology, equipment and weapons and more training with other nations who qualified for these missions.
After modernising all these aspects, it was stressed by the sample respondents that dealing with future threats from terrorists, hostage rescues, threats from other countries and unconventional warfare will become more convenient and highly possible.
FINDINGS ON GENERAL COMMENTS
In addition, it was highlighted through interview results that it is needed to establish joint special force command structure. Moreover, it was found that there is a need to formulate special operation doctrine, special command structure for special operation mission; speedy insertion and exertion system with incorporate with sister services and sophisticate mobility.
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CHAPTER SUMMARYThis chapter contained summaries of all the research findings through the interview results. In this chapter, it was highlighted that modernisation is the most significant aspect in improving military capability for Sri Lankan HR and CT groups. Under modernisation, equipments, weapons and training were highlighted with different aspects to be improved, for ensure national security in future.
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Chapter Six
Conclusion and Recommendation
INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides a conclusion to the research. It includes a conclusion to all the research chapters, while assessing the achievement of objectives. Future research implications and recommendations also have provided in this chapter.
CONCLUSIONThis research based on an analysis of the modernisation requirement for HR and CT officers in Sri Lanka Army, in order to evaluate their capability of meeting with future threats. The problem statement highlighted that there are various types of threats that Sri Lanka can encounter in future that include local terrorism threats as well as international terrorism and political threats, which will be difficult to address successfully, as current modernisation level of the HR and CT groups is lesser. After gathering different literature data in other similar international contexts and past Sri Lankan contexts, this research was designed in a qualitative manner to gather real-time primary data. A sample of 30 respondents were selected including HR and CT officers who are in operation at the moment, and also who are retired. According to the respondents’ answers, it could conclude that modernisation is the most important aspect to increase the military capability of Sri Lankan army, and all agreed that current level of modernisation is low. As a result, they indicated future threats will not be able to address properly. Therefore, it can be concluded that in order to ensure the national security from future threats, the modernisation of HR and CT groups of Sri Lankan army is vital.
ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
For the realisation of research aim, four sub research objectives have created and the level of achievement of those objectives are discussed below:
To identify possible threats in the present and future context as a developing country.

Based on the literature review analysis, potential future threats to Sri Lanka could summarise as terrorist attacks, hostage rescues, threats from other countries, and unconventional warfare (Mahadevan, 2012; Ott, 2002; Meigs, 2003; Simon, 1990)
To explore the adequacy of existing deployment, training, weapons and special equipment to address the future threats.

Both secondary and primary data sources revealed that current adequacy of modernisation are poor; hence it will be difficult to address future threats. This fact has been proved in the sections of 4.3.2, 4.3.3, and 4.3.4.
To study the lapses of present deployment of HR and CT groups of CR with considering the national interest.

As per the current level of modernisation and military capability, few lapses of present deployment have been identified including the difficulty of fighting with modern threats of opponents, difficulty of properly accomplishing missions due to lack of equipment, higher time consumption for missions planning, higher damages to properties and people in wartime, difficulty in pre-identifying the threats, higher vulnerability of victims etc.
The fourth objective of the research was to provide recommendations on required modernisation areas. It has been mentioned under the subsequent section of recommendation.

RECOMMENDATIONS
The fourth objective was:
To find out the possible proposal areas of modernisation, which HR and CT groups need to uplift their capabilities, especially in deployment, fulfilment of modern weapons, training and use of special equipment to address coming threats to Sri Lanka (even while combining the efforts of other sister services for , i.e. Air Force and Navy)
Based on the recommendations given by the sample respondents and the recommendations of the author of the research, few areas can be highlighted for modernisation that will improve the ability of meeting future threats. It is recommended to improve all three aspects of modernisation including equipment, training and weapons.
It can be recommended to improve the availability of high-tech and modern equipment including light weight bullet proof jackets, secure communication equipments (radio set with hand free mike), utility vehicle (RAMP) for exertion /insertion in to the building and air craft decontamination kits for chemical attack, thermal image cameras, night vision, binocular with laser range finders, cable camera, robot vehicle to detect explosives, drone, spy camera, electronic sound detecting devices, and anti-bugging devices etc.
In order to modernise weapons, the latest and high-tech military weapons need to make available including corner shot gun, sniper weapons with night capability, M4 carbine rifles, AIAW silencer sniper weapons, browning high power P-35 pistols, Glock 19 pistols, and HKMP5A3 weapons with night sight and with laser.

In order to modernise training of HR and CT officers, it is recommended to improve more training facilities with new technology, equipment and weapons and also to provide more training opportunities with other nations (mainly in China and India as they are developing and using better modern techniques and modernisation aspects).

Additionally, it can be recommended based on sample respondents’ views to formulate special operation doctrine, special command structure for special operation mission; speedy insertion and exertion system with incorporate with sister services and sophisticate mobility.
Moreover, as by studying the military modernisation aspects of Indian Army, it can be recommended to purchase and make available of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with modern technological capabilities, which can be used for both inspection and precision attack operations. Once these features become available with Navy and Air Force teams, the strength will be higher with more benefits.
FUTURE RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS
Throughout this research, the modernisation aspects and requirements of HR and CT officers in Sri Lanka Army, in order to address future threats were discussed. The modernisation was discussed in three levels including equipment, weapons and training. However, for a better and practical research, it is suggested for future researchers to study deeply on one modernisation aspect and to link it with other two Navy and Air Force forces. Likewise, the entire national forces can be modernised and improved.
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