DETERMINANTS OF THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF REHABILITATION PROGRAMME OF MALE INMATES
DETERMINANTS OF THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF REHABILITATION PROGRAMME OF MALE INMATES. A CASE OF KERICHO MAIN PRISON, KERICHO COUNTY, KENYA.
A Research Proposal Submitted In Partial Fulfillments Of The Requirement For The Award Of A Masters Of Arts Degree In Project Planning And Management.
University Of Nairobi
I declare that this is my original work and has not been presented for an award of any degree in any university.
Reg .No L50/86410/2016
Declaration by the supervisor
This project report has been submitted with my approval as the university supervisor.
Dr Moses Otieno
University of Nairobi.
I dedicate this work to my family, as a challenge so that they can also work hard in education. I also dedicate my research report to my classmates and my lecturers, for the work they did to help me throughout the period I was in class.
I would like to register my sincere gratitude to God for his favor and grace. Secondly, I also want to express my appreciation for my supervisor Dr Moses Otieno and the entire team from whom I tapped the knowledge and inspiration to do this work.
I also wish to extend my appreciation to my family, friends, and colleagues for their support during my study at the University of Nairobi. Finally, I would like to thank the entire staff at my work place that greatly inspired me.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS vii
CHAPTER ONE 2
1.1 Background of the study 2
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study. 6
1.4 Objectives of the Study. 6
1.5 Hypothesis of the study 6
1.6 Research questions 7
1.7 Significance of the Study. 8
1.8 Basic Assumptions of the study 8
1.9 Definitions of Significant terms as used in the Study 8
1.10 Organization of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO 10
LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Theoretical Literature Review. 10
2.3 Empirical review 10
2.3.1 Chaplaincy and Welfare Services. 10
2.3.2 Substance abuse treatment/therapy. 11
2.3.3 Vocational training. 12
2.3.4 Prisoners Earning Scheme. 13
2.3.5 Hobbies and Handicrafts. 13
2.3.6 Policies and Legislation. 13
2.3.7 Technology Advancement and recidivism in prison. 14
2.3.8 Congestion in prison. 14
2.3.9 Literacy classes and education programmes. 15
2.4 Theoretical Framework 16
2.4.1 Relapse Prevention Theory. 16
2.6 Knowledge Gap. 18
2.7 Summary of the Study. 18
CHAPTER THREE 19
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 19
3.1 Introduction 19
3.2 Research Design 19
3.3 Target Population 19
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures 19
3.5 Data collection. 20
3.6. Data Collection Procedures 21
3.7. Data Analysis Techniques 21
3.8 Ethical Issues 22
3.9 Operational Definition of Variables 22
List of figures ……………………………………………………………………………………..17
APPENDIX I: LETTER OF TRANSMITAL 27
APPENDIX II: INMATES QUESTIONNAIRE 28
APPENDIX III: PRISONS OFFICERS QUESTIONNAIRE 32
APPENDIX IV; WORK PLAN 36
APPENDIX V; BUDGET 37
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ADSA – Alcohol, Drug and Substance Abuse.
CSO – Community Service Orders.
GK – Government of Kenya
HRTS – Human rights.
IED – Institute for education in Democracy.
KCPE – Kenya Certificate of Primary Education.
KPS – Kenya prison service.
KPSTC – Kenya prison staff training college.
LRFT – Legal Resource Foundation Trust.
RRS – Rehabilitation Research Study.
SMR – Standard Minimum Rules.
UN – United Nations.
The year 2003 is remembered as the time prison department underwent positive changes in management and treatment of offenders in Kenya .As the new administration of president Kibaki coming in to power, prisons have undergone major reforms in provision of services such as food, clothes shelter and even luxuries such as television , computers and educational facilities. The standard of food has been improve in terms of quality and also quantity, balance diet and Sanitation has improved and general cleanliness is up to the standard. Those who are sick are attended to and officers are more human than in the past. The general condition in prison generally has improved including but not limited to staff houses, their remuneration and the general terms and condition of service just like their counterparts in police and armed forces. The researcher will go out to establish the determinants of the successful implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates that leads to the success in changing drug addicts, alcoholics, rapists, criminal behavior, thieves and murderers, without necessarily harming the culprits. The main reason for all these actions is to reduce or stop completely the number of convicts from coming back to prison again after they are released. The research will be guided by the following objectives; establishing how chaplaincy and welfare services assist in rehabilitating male inmates in Kericho main prison. Examining how vocational training influence rehabilitation of inmates in Kericho main prison. How education assist rehabilitation of male inmates in Kericho main prison. How re integration of offenders and their relatives is helping in rehabilitation of male inmates in Kericho main prison. How government policy help in rehabilitation of male inmate in Kericho main prison. . The researcher will use descriptive research design because of the behavior of the respondent. Kericho main prison has a population of 600 using sampling method the researcher will get 60 respondents for oral interview and questionnaires
1.1 Background of the study
As Dreisinger’s disturbing but ultimately hopeful study of incarceration practices around the world has a somewhat misleading title, Incarceration, suggesting that governmental policies of the countries she examines result in draconian prison sentences. They often do, of course. But her sub-title (“A Journey to Justice in Prisons around the World – 2016”) is a much more accurate indication of what she has observed and learned from two years of travel to prisons in Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Thailand, Brazil, Australia, Singapore and Norway. The elephant in the room is the prison system in the United States, acting as a distorting mirror of what she observes overseas and, too often, the exporter of failed prison policies to other nations. Let it be said here that any number of other countries Dreisinger did not visit (North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Russia, Venezuela, and Turkey, for example) are often cited as having some of the worst prisons in the world.
A professor of English at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY, Dreisinger has worked with prisoners for years, teaching them writing and founding the university’s Prison-to-College Pipeline program. She understands the field and—as everyone I have ever known who has taught in prisons—she has great compassion for her incarcerated students. Thus, throughout her narrative, she includes updates about many of her own American students: the release of some of them, their problems with adjusting to the outside world, their possibilities of recidivism. The latter becomes a major theme in her book, as she moves from country to country. The recidivism rate in the United States is 60 percent, in Norway (the country with the most enlightened prison policies in her study), the rate is 20 percent. As she notes at the conclusion of her book, “For every student who begins college in the USA in the fall, another is on the verge of being rearrested.”
What Dreisinger wants to observe in the prisons she visits overseas is not their worst practices, but their best ones—especially creative ways to engage prisoners and thereby promote more humane tendencies than those that have resulted in incarceration. In Rwanda, it’s creative writing, with an emphasis on forgiveness. In South Africa, it’s “restorative justice” week, again with an emphasis on creative writing. In Jamaica, it’s music behind bars. In Thailand, drama. But in Brazil (with 550,000 prisoners) it’s an innovative program called “Rehabilitation through reading,” which enables prisoners “to strike four days off their prison sentences, up to forty-eight days a year, for every approved work of literature, philosophy, or science they read and write a summary of.” That’s a low-cost rehabilitation program in a country that has some one of the most brutal solitary confinement systems in the world.
Australia, Singapore, and Norway all have recidivism rates in the 20s, clearly the result of their more humane treatment and attitude towards prisoners. The prisoners in Australia, for example, mostly work outside the prisons. The country has 33,000 inmates and the prisons are operated by corporations, but with almost opposite results of prisons-for-profit in the United States. The one obvious negative of incarceration in Australia is that 27.5% of the prisoners are aboriginals, mirroring the high percentage of African Americans in American prisons. How ironic that the country’s origins were as a penal colony—perhaps a good thing for prisoners today because so much of the general population can trace its origins to the original settlers sent from Britain. Their attitudes toward prisoners are not as negative as they are in most other countries. Singapore shares the penal colony origin and—in spite of some extreme penalties for such infractions as spitting or chewing gum—most of its institutions are halfway houses with significant training for the labor market.
Then there’s Norway as the model for the world regarding incarcerated practices. It’s obvious why. One prison director Dreisinger meets provides the context. Prisons in the country are small, “most housing fewer than fifty people and some just a handful. They’re spread all over the country, which keeps prisoners close to their families and communities, and are designed to resemble life on the outside as much as possible. An incarcerated person’s community continues to handle his health care, education, and other social services while he’s incarcerated; the Norwegian import model, as it is known, thus connects people in prison to the same welfare organizations as other citizens and creates what’s called a seamless sentence—meaning a person belongs to the same municipality before and after prison.”
How enlightened. Norway’s prison system is designed to “inflict as little pain as possible.” Not like prisons I’ve visited in the United States, where prisoners can’t have any dental work because they don’t have the $5 fee needed to pay for the work; where phone calls are prohibitive—because they generate a source of income—or where the commissaries charge outrageous prices for items such as coffee or underwear, not provided by the prison. No surprise, of course, since capitalism reigns supreme in American prisons just as it does in much of the world, and the general attitude toward prisoners is that they are something less than human.
The last three countries Dreisinger visited more for their enlightened policies rather than to implement courses in creative writing and the arts. Those are the only countries where she is not outraged by what she also observed. By contrast, in spite of Brazil’s reading program for prisoners, the country’s Super-max system (also known as a “twenty-three-hour-a-day cell isolation policy”) has been implemented to break up prison gangs. The five super maxes in the country cost Brazil $120,000 per prisoner, each year, “compared to what can average $36 per prisoner in Brazil’s impoverished state system, where prisoners often feed and clothe themselves.” She meets a prisoner who spent two years and eight months in solitary confinement, but this is nothing compared to super max prisons in the United States. (Our country’s longest super-max prisoner has spent “thirty-two years under a ‘no human contact’ order.”) The mind reels. One observer of the practice has called solitary confinement “gradual psychological genocide.” Dreisinger’s own observation is that “Super maxes and solitary are not only a global reality, they’re a growing global reality: an American nightmare from which the world has chosen not to awake.”
It’s not, however, the worst incarceration policies that Dreisinger dwells on or the intent of her study. Rather, in spite of writing programs and reading programs, of drama and music—which are mostly Band-Aids in prisons with much larger problems—it is the hope for restorative justice, for rehabilitation, for forgiveness that she applauds, beginning with her first overseas visit to a prison in Rwanda. “Prisons…are revenge on a grand scale,” she tells us. Most prisoners—if released—are in worse shape than when they entered. Beginning in 1998, Rwanda’s prisons were emptied—a policy determined by President Kagame, once he realized there was a crisis going on in the country’s prisons. Most inmates were punished for participating in the country’s genocide, in 1994. So he emptied the facilities, instigating a policy of forgiveness, and zero tolerance for tribalism. Dreisinger cites Desmond Tutu’s observation: “Forgiveness does not mean condoning what has been done…. It means reflecting the past mistake and changes. It involves trying to understand the perpetrators and so have empathy, to try to stand in their shoes and appreciate the sort of pressures and influences that might have conditioned them.”
Forgiveness is a hard sell for most people in the United States, perhaps for most people in the West. Our trigger response is for vengeance, for punishment—getting even with those who harmed us. Yet virtually all of the “successful” examples in Incarceration Nations (Australia, and Norway, and to a lesser extent Singapore) involve empathy, forgiveness and community. As Dresinger states in her concluding remarks to this important and unforgettable book, “Prisons are a failure of imagination in the most tragic sense of the term.” In the United States, we spend 54 billion dollars each year locking up prisoners and figuratively tossing aside the keys to their cells. We ought to be able to invest this money much more humanely than we do. Fortunately, Dresinger believes that recent moves in the United States have been in the right direction. If nothing else, politicians of both parties have begun admitting that we incarcerate too many people. Some states have begun releasing prisoners, selectively.
Baz Dresinger is more optimistic about the world’s prisons than many of us. There are places in her narrative—such as a remark implying that prisoners are “brilliant citizens”—where I find her positive cloying. Still, her attitude is absolutely necessary if anything is ever going to change with worldwide incarceration practices. . In Kenya, for example there are still male female prisoners condemned to death after being found guilty of capital offense such as murder, robbery with violence and attempted robbery with violence. Prison authorities are charged with the responsibility of implementing the death sentence. Prison personnel must be Sensitive to prisoners under sentence of death. The sensitivity also extends to members of their families. Supervision was stressful task especially after the date for execution has been set, the personnel responsible will need special training and support. They must be given every possible assistance to file an appeal against the sentence as they undergo rehabilitation process, if executions are not being carried out, the prison authorities need to advise the president to commute the exceptionally good conduct or if their crime was accompanied by particular extenuating circumstances. A survey of Kenyan law reveals a variety of the foregoing special considerations. The children Act requires every court dealing with a child before in regard to the best interests of the child and further takes steps for removing him/her from undesirable surroundings and to secure proper provision for the child (Kenya prison service Handbook on Human Right, IED)
According to the United Nations standard minimum rules (SMRS) (1989) for the administration of juvenile justice also prescribes detention only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest period of time other protections also apply, such as separation from adults. Their records are to be strictly confidential. Care, protection, education, and vocational skills are emphasized as well as semi-institutional arrangements such as half-way houses, day –time training centers and other appropriate arrangements outside the prison environments.
Kenya Prison Service (2001) states that, the main aim of the prison department was to reform and rehabilitate prisoners to prepare them for re-integration with society or re-entry as it was known in some countries.
The new official policy marks a profound shift that required appropriate training to succeed. And such training focused on the conveyance information and understanding to recruit as well as develop their professional skills and change attitudes and behavior towards prisoners. Prisoners rehabilitation programs are supposed to be planned for and implemented right from when prisoner steps into the prison to when they leave, with support even after they leave. This means that the prisoner to be taken through a process that allows prison authorities to gauge his chances of reformation and to prepare a plan for such reformation. Life in prison should be tailored to encourage proactive action by prisoners’ reform, instead of unnecessarily strict rules or punishment, prisoners required skills, and these should be readily on offer. Measures such as parole and remission should be used creatively to influence sustainable improvement in behavior. The earnings scheme will need to be reviewed to compensate prisoners’ property for their labor and also as a way of accumulating capital to restart life after prisons. Measures should also be put in place to provide continuing support to the released prisoner to prevent relapse back into criminal activity.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Overcrowded and congested prisons pose a danger of illness and the spread of communicable diseases such as sexually transmitted infections, including HIVl/AIDS, also there is the danger of suffocation. In the United States, about 45 percent of released prisoners are rearrested within one year; more than two-thirds of former inmates find themselves back in prison within three years (Spjut, 2011).
Kenyan prisons, like many other prisons had experienced high rates of Recidivism despite many rehabilitation programs offered to the inmates, this indicates the high crime rate. (Handbook on Human rights in Kenya Prisons)
It cost the Government a lot of money incarcerating and managing inmates.
1.3 Purpose of the Study.
The purpose of this study is to find out the Determinants of the successful Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho main prison and give recommendation to the relevant departments for necessary action..
1.4 Objectives of the Study.
The study was guided by the following objectives
1. To determine how access to chaplaincy and social welfare services influence success Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho Main prison.
2. To examine how reintegration program influences the successful Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates.
3. To assess how education influence the success of Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho Main prison.
4. To establish the extent to which vocational training influence the success of Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho Main prison.
5. To assess how Government policies influence the success of Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho Main prison.
1.5 Hypothesis of the study
1. H0: There is no significant relationship between chaplaincy & welfare services and rehabilitation of male inmates
H1: There is significant relationship between chaplaincy & welfare services and rehabilitation of male inmates
2. H0: There is no significant relationship between reintegration program and rehabilitation of inmates
H1: There is significant relationship between reintegration program and rehabilitation of inmates
3. H0: There is no significant relationship between education and rehabilitation of inmates
H1: There is significant relationship between education and rehabilitation of inmates
4. H0: There is no significant relationship between vocation training and rehabilitation of male inmates
H1: There is significant relationship between vocation training and rehabilitation of male inmates
5. H0: There is no significant relationship between government policies and rehabilitation of male inmates
H1: There is significant relationship between government policies and rehabilitation of male inmates
1.6 Research questions
1. To what extend does chaplaincy and welfare service contribute to successful implementation of rehabilitation of male inmates in Kericho GK prison
2. To what extend is reintegration program me contribute to successful implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho GK prison
3. How does education influence the success of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho GK prison
4. How does vocation training assist in success of implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho GK prison
5. How does government policy help in implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates in Kericho GK prison
1.7 Significance of the Study.
This study will be useful to researchers in project planning and management, in reducing recidivism and successful re-integration of prisoners back to the community, it will also be use full to policy makers in Kenya and even globally, hence it would be useful for the relevant government ministries and Non-governmental organizations in administration of rehabilitation program. , It is also useful to penal institutions dealing with male and female inmates’. This studies would also form basis on which others would develop their studies especially people of Kericho County.
1.8 Basic Assumptions of the study
An assumption is basically an imagination that a fact is true (Oso;Onen, 2008). This study will be based on the following assumptions; data collection instrument for this study will give valid and reliable data, research instrument will give valid and reliable data. It will be assumed, for research purposes that the chosen sample was appropriate representative of the entire population of Kericho Main prison, which will true. It will be assumed that the respondents will have no problem in interpretation of the questions in the questionnaire and responding appropriately, in case the respondents had a problem in the interpretation of questions in the questionnaire and responding appropriately research assistance will be employed to assist in interpretation of the questionnaires.
1.9 Definitions of Significant terms as used in the Study
This means concepts, groups of words meaning one thing.
Influence: The consequences or results of an activity.
Inmates: Any person, whether convicted or not, under detention in any prison.
Male: Biological differences determined at birth
Performance: The contribution of rehabilitation program to rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation: Process of instilling knowledge, skills and attitudes for the purpose of reformation, resettling and reintegration of an offender to fit back into the society as a result of a reformed character after discharge from prison.
Prison: Any building, enclosure or place where a person is lawfully detained awaiting trial or upon conviction.
Recidivism: The tendency for some prisoners to break the law and be sent back to prison after serving a previous term penal institution.
Determinants-an element that identifies or determines the nature of something
1.10 Organization of the Study
This gives highlights on how the researcher will organize the data.
Chapter one introduces the background of the study, statement of the problem, purposed of the study, objectives of the study, hypothesis of the study, significance of the study, assumptions of the study, and definitions of the significant terms and organization of the study.
Chapter two contains the literature which includes the introduction, theoretical framework. It also presents the conceptual framework based on the variables, and further will go into detail elaboration on how these rehabilitation programs for male inmates will influence rehabilitation programs. This reveals the knowledge gaps in the study. The chapter will end with the summary.
Chapter three presents research methodology, in terms of the study research design, target population, sampling procedures and sample size, data collection methods, tools to be used, its reliability and validity. The data collection procedure, ethical issues, operational of variables, and the methods of data analysis are also being discussed.
This chapter presents the literature review, the theoretical framework, empirical review and conceptual framework of the study, while revealing the knowledge gaps from previously written literature as well as a summary.
2.2 Theoretical Literature Review.
Rehabilitation of inmate as indicated public opinion supports it. The trend Americans had been aware for 25years. Roberts, 2004, during the late 1980s, 78 percent felt that rehabilitation should be the primary goal when sentencing youth. Cullen (2005) notes, “although the public is punitive and offenders treatment has been excoriated repeatedly, Americas strongly support the view that efforts should be made to rehabilitate offenders” (Cullen, 2005).
2.3 Empirical review
2.3.1 Chaplaincy and Welfare Services.
Rehabilitation is a process of helping inmates who are serving sentences in prisons to return to good health or a normal life by providing them with training (ADSA policy, 2012).
The goal of prisoners’ rehabilitation programs is to reform prisoners from committing crimes and assisting them in starting normal lives,
Rehabilitation is one of the core functions of prisons and prison system. To realize this goal, prisoners must receive counseling and guidance along with training in some skill for gainful employment upon leaving prison. The level of rehabilitation achieved in prison determines how well the inmate will adjust in society after release. Social workers and welfare officers are responsible for the provision of counseling and guidance to the inmates. The chaplaincy within the prisons Department seeks to rehabilitate prisoners through preaching and teaching the word
of God, and offering spiritual counseling and guidance. They also act as a link between the-prisoners and the outside community as a whole. (Madoka Report, 2oo8)
UN SMR, rules 41and 42, (1989) prisoners are provided with religion of their choice where they attend services and be spiritually nourished. Worship gives everyone an opportunity to put aside the business and hassles of the world and get in touch with Jesus Christ our lord and savior. Some people may be hurting so badly that they can only express their pain through worship. Rules 41and 42 provided that prisoners shall have access to religious practitioners of their choices. They should able to attend services of person needed religious life. Chaplaincy play vital role in spiritual and moral development of prisoners as well as in providing outgoing guidance and counseling, religious organization material for education support and training opportunities.
According to Kenya prison, (2011) Guidance is a continuous process concerned with determining and providing for developmental need for the client. This is a term referring to the broad area of education activity and services aimed at assisting individual in making and taking out adequate plans and achieving satisfactory adjustment in life. Counseling is basically creating a relationship with a client, walking through it and he/she trust you enough to go through healing process. It is skilled oriented process session where a person with difficulties is assisted to go through the problem and find possible solutions (KPS HIV Aids policy, 2007).
According to Kenya prisons staff training college, Cadet initial course notes (2011) recent thinking has led to the growing belief that sentences should be designed to assist in the reformation, is about changing character from bad to good. This is accepted in relation to young offenders, and is also reflected in the system of parole and community service orders (CSO) the promoters of this theory argue that it provides an opportunity for the state to control crime by reforming offenders. It is for this reason that general sentencing policy reveals young offenders (who are thought to have an opportunity to reform as they mature) and first offenders (who are not generally given the maximum sentence under the law because they are given the benefit of double about their chances of changing their ways) Reforming is therefore served when an offender leaves jail with a resolve to change his/her ways for the better.
2.3.2 Substance abuse treatment/therapy.
Drug addicts Rehabilitation program in most Penal institutions that abuse drugs, commit crimes like manslaughter, assault, robbery and Robbery with violence, stealing, rape and attempted rape. (ADSA 2012)
Remote parenting/ open days, this is one of the programs that has very big impact on inmates because its meant to promote conduct and improve family strength support, systems by allowing parents to continue guiding their children despite the incarceration.
Brown (2009) discovered that over the last three decades the incarceration rates for drugs offense has increased drastically. Brown found that out of over two million prisoners half of them is drug related cases. Brown stated that US spend around 8billion dollars annually incarceration.
According to police, prisoners in Venezuelans (Latin American country) use blackberry phones and laptops to arrange drug deals from their cells. On other occasions prisoners and visitors alike make use of an alley between cells to smoke Marijuana and crack cocaine. These scenarios have prompted policy makers and correctional practitioners call for increased funding of prison and community based drug treatment programs. Additionally an evaluation of the programs will proved a lowered recidivism as measured by arrests,
Prison treatment programs in the world / USA. Some correctional facilities allow Narcotics cocaine or alcoholic. Self help group are conducted once or twice a week such groups provide models for drug free life style and a support system to maintain the abstinence resolve upon release. They insist on sobriety encourage sharing exercise and problems released to drug dependence, teach constructive tools to deal with the bigger to release and urge positive alternatives to drug dependent lifestyles.
Individual counseling available for drug users in which a counselor therapist meets with an individual inmate occasionally during the week. The session focuses typically on problem feelings attitudes and behaviors. The goal is to improve the inmates self image sense of personal responsibility and ability to function in a socially acceptable manner.
Group counseling in which small groups of inmates (usually 8-10 members) meet once or twice weekly with a therapist.
Teaching inmates religious beliefs on Christianity, Supporters of the programs are of the view that prisoners should be healed too, after their dark past, these programs having proved to be effective since the percentage of re-offences drop drastically (Dnyshan, 2008)
2.3.3 Vocational training.
Mandatory training helps the inmates learn skills to be used outside the prison. In Tanzania, prisoners serving long term sentences may receive mandatory training at a prison training college. The country boasts over 6,000 prisoners took various trade Tests in 25 years period. On return to prison they practice building skills as part of prisons Building Brigade that carries out building contracts .Approximately 52% of convicted prisoners participate .Kenyan prisons the same situation experienced, that was, limited options in skills the offenders learned as part of rehabilitation program . The offenders can only train in the available skills which include: masonry, tailoring, metalwork, Agriculture and carpentry. Some of offenders are not interested in training.
2.3.4 Prisoners Earning Scheme.
The earning scheme is one of the strongest disciplinary controls available in a prison. No prisoner shall receive earning for days when he is absent from work. Absent from work exceeding 4(four) hours in a day shall count as absent for the whole day and such absences will include attendance at a sick parade or admission in hospital if the prisoners sickness is one of his own action. Appropriate assistance and interventions have shown to reduce recidivism as much as16 %( Mitchell, 2010)
The purpose of earning scheme is: to promote discipline, to enable prisoners to have some money on discharge from prison, to have money to purchase some essential items and others, money earned in prison by a prisoner helps a prisoner to start from somewhere after release from the prison, although this may attract then back in prison especially when they are not accepted back in the family or community (KPSTC Cadet initial course notes, 2011).
2.3.5 Hobbies and Handicrafts.
Prisoners who are skilled in their trade are of good conduct excellent behavior is given chance to practice hobbies and handicrafts for the prison officers for a small pay. . Hobbies and handicrafts keeps prisoners busy, instills discipline among prisoners, enable them to earn some money as carpenters, tailors, among others. Discipline is an indicator of rehabilitation program performance and successful reintegration back to the society (CAP 90) .
2.3.6 Policies and Legislation.
Lamb and Metz (2011) point out that historically the criminal justice system has done little or nothing to rehabilitate prisoners. The administration in Kenya is the management of penal institutions as per the Cap90 Laws of Kenya introduced by the British colonialists who introduce a formal penal system to deal with the law breakers which was revised in 1977 which needs to be changed for example optional skills for rehabilitating the inmates. According to Khanka (2007) training is teaching and learning activities carried on the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the required knowledge, skills and attitude to perform their jobs effectively. Politicians need to revise cap 90, Cap92 and Kenya prison service Standing Orders that will improve the performance of rehabilitation programs (KPSTC, 2011).
According to UN standard Minimum Rules (SMS) for treatment of offenders, provides that mandatory training should provide and prepare inmates for life after release, skills taught should be applicable to outside word. The rules also cautions against mandatory training for primary purpose making profit for prison out of prison. According to Handbook on human Rights, (IED) Proper training based on reformed curriculum and tools, such Handbooks will be necessary, the state needs to address some root cause of crime, such as the high levels of poverty and social inequality, improving inter-agency coordination and collaboration with other Departments, agencies and ministries in the justice sector, such as the police, the Director of public prosecutions, the state law Office, the ministry of justice and constitutional Affairs, the probation and Aftercare Services department and the judiciary, improvement in the facilities that the Department has its disposal to do its work such as skills training services.
The research reveals, there is still a perception that non-custodial sentences are ‘soft’ penalties’ hence failing to deter criminals. The research revealed that on the contrary, non-custodial sentences have a high success rate and facilitate the rehabilitation of offenders’. For example in Mombasa, the probation and aftercare services Department runs resource centre that provides skills and empower offenders serving non-custodial sentences. The skills include competence in information technology and in maintaining trees nurseries. The offenders are then networked with the community. The probation Department council, Department of forestry and religious leaders such as Imams, Penal Reform international, and Annual Report (2006) .The research reveals that there seems to be a high absconding rate in town.
2.3.7 Technology Advancement and recidivism in prison.
Technology has both negative and positive influences on performance of rehabilitation programs in Kenya prisons. Men generally interact with technology from early age more due to stereotyping and the socialization aspect of science being a main’s domain (Brenston, 2011).Male inmates have gone high take especially smuggling of mobile phones in to prison, which they use to corn the public, this has negative impact on the Department core function. In order to prevent that, searches are thoroughly conducted. To search is to examine carefully in order to find, prison security largely depends on thoroughness of searches carried out to detect and prevent any prohibited or dangerous articles from being smuggled into prison.
2.3.8 Congestion in prison.
The core function of prison Department is undermined by factors such: Overcrowding of prisons; low inmates versus constable ratio; inadequate resources; poor living conditions which do not motivate constables; minimal training on rehabilitation among others
With overcrowding in prisons rehabilitation objective is not achieved, many cases of recidivism are experienced. The objective of rehabilitation is best implemented in long prison terms, for instance, long term prisoners are able to master the different skills imparted on them. The research reveals that, there successful stories where ex-convicts apply the skills learn in prison and excel. Rehabilitation as the core function of prison Department is being undermined by overcrowding (madoka Report, 2003-2010) .
According to a report on status of penal institutions in Kenya( 2003-2010), Congestion is not only violates human rights and causes infectious diseases but also brings petty offenders continued to be remanded in prisons primarily because they were unable to raise the high bail or bond terms given by courts. In 2004 Meru prison Madoka report, (2010) 6 prisoners confirmed dead of suffocation occasioned by congestion. Another issue concerns congestion is, mixing of inmates; petty offenders and those on capital offense. Also minors were being put together with the adult inmates.
This was said to have increased some misconduct by inmates including some sodomizing the juveniles at night. Congestion in prison was a major contributor to the poor health of inmates particularly when there is an outbreak of communicable diseases such as TB and cholera. The spread of these communicable diseases sometimes leads to being epidemic in prison (Madoka report, 2010)
South Africa is faced with list of social problems. High poverty rates leads to high crime rates, which leads to higher incarceration rates, which in turn subject offenders to environments that make them more likely to re-offend, which costs the government more money, less left over to help alleviate the poverty
2.3.9 education program.
Prisoners released without any education, employment and cognitive restructuring addressing anti-social behavior has a negative impact on the communities they are released in. The African-American Forum (2013) points out that, in spite of their ‘get tough on campaign’ over recent years, violent incarceration and incarceration of offenders. Prisoners released, without the proper preparation breeds recidivism; the largest group being African-American male youth.
Programs within Kenya prison setting are categorized into formal and vocational training; education is the acquisition of knowledge and ability through intellectual, moral and physical training. Inmates get certificates after sitting various National examinations like Kenya certificate of primary Education. US Federal Bureau of prisons study found that, successfully completed educational programs for six months confined, the lower the recidivism.
In Nigeria, many citizens are illiterates and those literate with basic normal education do not have access to information regarding to daily activities responsibilities. Criminal behaviors and delinquency are common occurrences in Nigeria. The recent cases experienced were; Rape, drug trafficking, murder, armed robbery, fraud, traffic offences and theft have become more serious to tackle as they have manifested with new methods and techniques (Omisakin, 1998).No empirical evidence of the extent of recidivism. South Africa estimated recidivism at 66 percent and 94 percent (Muntingh 2001) Recidivism figures are very high, this indicates rehabilitation has not been the main focus in these countries.
2.4 Theoretical Framework
The study was guided by Relapse Prevention Theory. Relapse is an act of returning to previous condition or a return to former mood, state or way of life, especially bad or undesirable after coming out of it for a while.
2.4.1 Relapse Prevention Theory.
The theory provides a mechanism to assess the performances of rehabilitation programs on clients. Relapse prevention is a cognitive behavior model with origin in Banduras (1977) self efficacy theory which presents a comprehensive and integrated framework for explaining the change process in psychotherapy. This theory argues that techniques producing initial behavior change may be ineffective at maintaining that change over time and avoid relapse. Relapse prevention treatment provides individuals with the behavioral and cognitive skills necessary to cope effectively with high situations (temptations and interpersonal situations. The strengths of the theory include: Good support system; Good treatment team; Good insight; Motivation to get/stay better; drawing upon a wide range of skills.
Despite the strength of the theory, there are also weaknesses like Perfectionism, putting insight into action, dealing with changes. Strength and weakness will provide a framework for relapse prevention plan.
Then above theory is related to this study in such a way that rehabilitation program aims at changing the habits and characters of the prisoners so that they become constructive persons in the community. Also the study tries to look at the influence of the rehabilitation program on reducing the incidences of re conviction of the prisoner after release. Hence all the above aims at changing the prisoners from being social misfits to people of great value in the community and also to make them change from the bad habits to useful people in the community.
2.4.2 Cognitive theory – is an approach to psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding thought processes (Bandura 1986).This helps in dealing with various categories of offenders).
2.5 Conceptual framework
Dependent variable Moderating variable
A conceptual framework is an illus
Administrative presentation of the relationship between variables (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2004). It highlights the relationship and interaction between independent and dependent variables.
2.6 Knowledge Gap.
The literature review reveals not many studies had been done on performance of rehabilitation programs in Kenya prisons. The studies focused on global and National factors affecting the performance of rehabilitation programs. The literature Review also revealed that, the Government needs to address the root cause of crime, to introduce new Technology and to motivate those rehabilitators and bump resources to help in rehabilitation program.
2.7 Summary of the Study.
This study focused on the Determinants of the successful Implementation of the Rehabilitation programs performance which will be done in Kericho county Gk prison. The Determinants are: chaplaincy and welfare services, Reintegration program, vocational training, literacy and Education and Government policy.
This chapter presents the research methodology that was used in the study. It outlines the research design, target population, sample size, and sample selection. It also features on the data collection instruments, instruments re-testing, instruments Validity and instrument reliability. This chapter also highlights the data collection procedures and data analysis techniques and operation of the variables that were used.
3.2 Research Design
According to Orodho (2002), research design is the arrangements for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in the procedure hence research design stands for advance planning of the methods to be adopted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in their analysis. The descriptive survey method was used in this study. This research design was chosen for the study as it was suitable for determining the influence of the selected factors on rehabilitation programs performance for male inmates in Kericho main prison.
3.3 Target Population
The target population refers to an entire group of individual having common observable characteristics Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). The target population for this study was male inmates to be rehabilitated in Kericho main prison, Kenya. This population comprised 600 inmates. (Source: Kericho main Prison lockup sheet, 2018)
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures
Sample is a small group selected from the target population (Mugenda and Mugenda 2003) large enough to present the salient characteristics of accessible population.
3.4.1 Sample Size
According to Kothari (2003) sample size refers to the number of items to be selected from the target population. The sample size should be optimum to fulfill the requirements of efficiency, reliability, representation and flexibility. The study adopted a sample size of 60 respondents that was 10% of the total population of 600 male inmates and officer in the Kericho main prison.
According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), a sample size of 10% of the population size is considered adequate for descriptive study.
3.4.2 Sampling Procedure
The researcher will select representative sample by coming up with a sampling frame. A sampling frame is a complete listing of the sampling units a single member of a sampling population. A good sampling unit must be relevant to the research problem. The sampling frame in this study is the list of long term male inmates in Kericho main prison.
Stratified sampling technique will be used to select 60 respondents. This technique gave each and every individual in the target population and equal chance of being selected.
3.5 Data collection.
Data collection for this study was done using a questionnaire. The questionnaire used adopted structured questions. Majority of questions were close ended for quantitative data and few were open ended for quantitative data analysis. The questionnaire had two sections. Section A focused on the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Section B comprised of questions geared towards the objectives and answers to the research questions. The questionnaire was preferred as it was easy to administer, cheaper than other data tools and timely in use.
3.6.1 Validity of research Instruments.
Validity refers to the issue of whether an indicator (a set of indicators) that is devised to gauge a concept whether it really measures.
Validity refers to the appropriateness, meaningfulness and usefulness of the inferences a researcher makes. It also refers to the degree to which evidence supports any inferences a researchers makes based on the data he or she collects using a particular instrument. For example if a project manager want to know whether the people support the project or not he or she will need an instrument to record the data and some sort of assurance that the information obtained will enable him or her to draw the correct conclusions about the people’s feelings or opinions. The process of drawing the correct conclusion based on the data obtained from an assessment is what validity is all about (Bryman, 2012)
Borg and Gall (1989) defined validity as the degree to which a test measures what it purports to measure. The validity of the questionnaire used for this study was determined in terms of its
Construct criterion and content validity. The content validity of the questionnaire was determined by the use of a checklist. This was to determine whether the study has captured the variables, research questions and objectives in the questionnaire. A further consultant on the questionnaire was done through expert judgment to determine the contract, criterion and content validity. This was done in respect to the objectives, research questions and variables of the study.
3.6.2 Reliability of research Instruments.
According to Bryman (2012) Reliability refers to the constancy of measure of a concept Reliability refers to the consistence of the scores obtained. Reliable instrument needs to be valid instruments for example, a measuring scale that consistently under weights on object by one kilo is a reliable scale but it is not a valid measure of weight. This is consistent results with repeated measurements of the same object with same instrument. The degree of stability is determined by comparing the results of repeated measurements.
The reliability of the questionnaire was enhanced by the test and retest method. This method was used to determine the stability and consistency with which the questionnaires used accurately measure the concepts. The same questionnaire was administered to the same sample of respondents within an interval of one week.
These respondents did not take part in the real study later on and was done, keeping all the conditions conducive. This was through administering the same instrument on two different occasions on the same people then comparing the responses in the first and the second questionnaire (Best, 2002) more than half of the responses in all the questionnaire items were similar, hence the instrument was considered reliable.
3.6. Data Collection Procedures
The data collection began after submitting copies of the corrected proposal to the Extra-centre University Of Nairobi in application for a research permit. Further permission was
Sought from the ministry of interior and co-ordination of national government and prison department (Kenya prison service) the Kericho county prison commanders.
The researcher administered copies of the questionnaire to 60 respondents. The respondents filled the questionnaire and the researcher picked them immediately or after an hour.
3.7. Data Analysis Techniques
Data analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for patterns of relationships that exists among data groups. In the process of analysis, the researcher determined the relationships or differences supporting or conflicting with original objectives.
Analysis helped us in interpreting data, drawing conclusion and making decisions. In descriptive statistics we are able to present our finding in a concise manner and in inferential statistics were are able to develop generalizations from the sample to the population.
Many methods of data analysis are available and the researcher’s decision to use any of them depends on the nature of the problem being investigated, the nature of data, the measurements used and the level of precision required among many other considerations.
Data analysis falls into two categories namely; descriptive and inferential analysis. Descriptive analysis describes the phenomena in statistical terms. No attempts are made to make predictions or inferences.
Data analysis was done by the help of the SPSS program. SPSS is an abbreviation of the statistical package for the social sciences. Data stored in SPSS is easy to manipulate through coding and summarizes data and manipulate with ease.
The term descriptive statistics stands for the procedures used in the description of data.
Analysis is the process of converting raw data into meaningful statement. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data in form of frequencies and percentages. SPSS version 17.0 was used to analyze the relationship between the variables using data was converted into frequency counts
Such as percentages, frequency distribution tables and expressed in words. Qualitative data are non numerical in nature, thus the values of a numerical variable can only be classified into categories called classes (Mendenhall, W. and Sinchich, 2003). The information was presented in the form of tables from which conclusions and recommendations were made.
3.8 Ethical Issues
Ethics in research should be an integral part of the research planning and implementation process not viewed as an afterthought or about. There should be increased consciousness of the need for strict ethical guidelines for researches. Some of the ethical issues touch on deception and in vision of privacy. The three main ethical principles that need to be considered include; Beneficence; maximizing outcomes for sciences, humanity and the individual research participants and minimizing or avoiding unnecessary risk harm or wrong, Respect; Treating people with respect and courtesy, including those who are not autonomous (for example small children, people who have mental retardation or senility), Justice; Ensuring that those who bear the risk in the research are those who benefit from it, ensuring that the procedures are reasonable, non exploitative, carefully considered and fairly administered. In this regard data collection will be done with integrity with permission from relevant authorities. Ethical issues with regard to the respondents confidentially will be s observed.
This is because obtaining the sample frame entailed taking personal information such as the name of the institution or prison where data is collected at all stages of the study, care will be taken to avoid malice and intellectual theft by recognizing the work of others through citation.
3.9 Operational Definition of Variables
The independent variable was determinants of successful implementations of rehabilitation program of male inmates aged between 18 and 75 years old in Kericho main prison. These
Include the literacy and education, vocational training, chaplaincy and welfare services, reintegration or remote parenting. The dependent variables will be male inmates in Kericho main prison.
OBJECTIVE VARIABLE INDICATORS DATA COLLECTION DATA ANALYSIS
To determine how access to spiritual, Religious and social welfare program leads to success in rehabilitating male inmates in Kericho Main prison.
Resources Reduced recidivism of male inmates
Resources. Chaplain and welfare services
Number of recidivism
Successful re- integration
Number of custodial and non custodial sentences Questionnaire Qualitative
To establish the extent to which mandatory skills influences rehabilitation of male inmates in Kericho Main prison. Dependent
by male inmates
Money received from Donors
Number of inmates enrolled in earning scheme, hobbies and handicrafts Questionnaire Qualitative
To assess how reintegration program influences rehabilitation performance of male inmates in Kericho Main prison. Dependent
Rehabilitation of male inmate
To examine how vocational training programs influence rehabilitation of male inmates.
Rehabilitation of male inmate
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APPENDIX I: LETTER OF TRANSMITAL
University of Nairobi
P.O. Box 30197-00100 GPO
SUBJECT: DETERMINANTS OF SUCCESSFULL IMPLEMENTATION OF REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES OF MALE INMATES IN GK PRISON KERICHO
I am a student at the University of Nairobi carrying out an academic research in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Masters Degree in project planning and management .This letter is to request you to participate in the study by filling in the questionnaire to the best of your knowledge. Any information given will be accorded the confidentiality it deserves and will not be used for any other purpose than academic.
I highly appreciate your co-operation.
Thank you in advance
APPENDIX II: INMATES QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear respondent, I am a student of University of Nairobi, Extra Mural centre, as part of my Academic requirements to the Award of a Masters in Project Planning and Management. I am administering this questionnaire to collect information on determinants of the successful implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates The information obtained will be confidential and it will be used for the purpose of this research and not for any malicious reason. You are requested to complete this questionnaire honestly and objectively as possible.
1. Do not sign your name anywhere on this questionnaire.
2. Before starting to answer any question please read the instructions at the start of each question.
3. Please tick the appropriate box and also fill in the blank spaces provided for those questions where elaborate answers are required.
4. Use the space at the back of this questionnaire if you need more space for your responses.
A. PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENT
1 Age of the respondent
2 Gender of the respondent
3 What is your marital status?
4 Level of education
Among the following crimes which one made you to be convicted?
Robbery with violence
Others specify ……………………………………………………………………………….
6. Have you been convicted before? Yes No
B: DETERMINANTS OF SUCCEESSFULREHABILITATION PROGRAM.
BEHAVIARAL CHANGE OF PRISONER IN PRISON AND AFTER.
objectives Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
Most of the prisoners have gained skills which help them improve their living standards
Religious training have assisted prisoners from being social misfits to good and great people in the community
Allowing of the family members to come and visit the prisoners and share with them once in a while has led to good reception of the prisoners in the community after jail
Through technical training for example carpentry, building and construction, tailoring has made most prisoners to be self reliant after jail
Inadequate resources has led to inefficient rehabilitation of the prisoners leading to re-conviction
Do you think change of technology has led to adequate rehabilitation of the prisoners
Once the prisoners have been released from jail they are readily accepted in the community
9. Based on your own opinion how do you gauge the rehabilitation program in the prison?
I don’t know
Any other comment ………………………………………………………………….………
Thanks for your response
APPENDIX III: PRISONS OFFICERS QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear respondents I am a student of University of Nairobi, Extra Mural centre, as part of my Academic requirements for an Award of a Masters degree in Project Planning and Management. I am administering this questionnaire to collect information on Determinants of the successful Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates. The information obtained will be confidential and it will be used for the purpose of this research and not for any malicious reason. You are requested to complete this questionnaire honestly and objectively as possible.
1. Do not sign your name anywhere on this questionnaire.
2. Before starting to answer any question please read the instructions at the start of each question.
3. Please tick the appropriate box and also fill in the blank spaces provided for those questions where elaborate answers are required.
4. Use the space at the back of this questionnaire if you need more space for your responses.
A. PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENT
1. Age of the respondent
2. Gender of the respondent
3. What is your marital status?
4. Level of education
What is your current designation pertains to the following ranks
6. Do you participate in the rehabilitation program of the inmates within the prison? Yes No
B. DETERMINANTS OF SUCCESSFUL IMPLIMENTATION OF REHABILITATION PROGRAMES OF MALE INMATES IN THE KERICHO GK PRISON.
Based on your own opinion tick the appropriate box or option in relation to determinants of successful Implementation of rehabilitation program of male inmates.
Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
funding rehabilitation program leads to increased rates of recidivism in the male inmates in most GK prison
Incapacitated or inadequate knowledge and skills among prison officers leads to recidivism in most GK prisons
Unfavorable micro environment within the GK prisons leads to increased rates of recidivism of most government prisons
Well trained prison officers leads to successful male inmates GK prisons.
C. TRAININGS OF PRISONERS ON VARIOUS SKILLS AND EDUCATIONAL TRAINING (Based on your own opinion choose the most appropriate option from the list given below by ticking your answer)
8. Which among the following are the mandatory skills which are trained in the prison?
9. Do the above gained skills lead to reduced incidences of recidivism in most prisons?
10. If yes how?
10. Does your prison offer the following literacy training (tick the most appropriate answer)
11. Do the above literacy training have an influence on recidivism of most prisoners in various GK prisons?
Any other comment
THANKS FOR YOUR RESPONSE
APPENDIX IV; WORK PLAN
Proposal writing and defense
Piloting (4 days)
Data collection (2 days)
Data analysis (3 day)
Typing, editing and final defense (5 days)
APPENDIX V; BUDGET
ITEMS UNIT QUANTITY UNIT COST TOTAL
Papers Ream 2 500 1000
Internet Bundles 200 1 200
Pens and stationery Packet 10 20 20
Typing Words 13,800 500 500
Binding Papers(manila) 6 120 720
Transport Days 5000 1 5000