Category: Etudes

The Protestant Revolution was a schism in the catholic church started by Martin Luther and continued by John Calvin


The Protestant Revolution was a schism in the catholic church started by Martin Luther and continued by John Calvin. It developed into one of the main three branches of modern Christianity, Protestantism. A principal of christianity had always been blind faith, faith in god and in religious leaders. Distrust was brought about by the black plague which some people blamed on the church, still most remained loyal. Reform ideas were pushed by men such as John Wycliffe and Erasmus of Rotterdam but these ideas really took hold in 1517 when Martin Luther, a pastor and professor nailed his 95 theses to the door of the castle church. The theses were a “list of questions and propositions for debate. He believed that that salvation could be reached through faith and by divine grace only and criticized Corruption such as the sale of indulgences by the church. Luther argued against blind faith and spent 10 years of his life translating the bible, which was previously only in latin, into German so that common people could read it for themselves. The invention of the printing press was a large part of Luther’s success, as it made for more accessibility and helped spread his ideas.

The world of Fashion is the essential source in which we use to communicate


The world of Fashion is the essential source in which we use to communicate, explore, and reflect in the ordinary. Many sought to believe that fashion is all about impressing others with how rich you look based on what you wear, how good you appear, to feel included, or as most would say, to dress a particular way to express one’s self-identity. However, the word ‘fashion’ goes beyond what society grasp, wherein the importance of what we instinctively perceive it has made us become so oblivious to our existing behavioural factors, and consequently leading to an impulsive consumption behaviour.

In spite of our consumption-driven culture that we live in as a society, we are obliged to value novelty and materialistic things beyond all, but are we aware or at least concern about the environmental sustainability?

Table 4


Table 4.2 Data for flux linkage error
0 0 0
18 2.4 1
12 1.5 2
14 1.7 3
13.33 1.733 4
13.33 1.733 10

Figure 4.2 Result for flux linkage in fuzzy logic with duty ratio and DTC were used.
In the analysis, above data were used. The torque response of the motor using ordinary DTC and fuzzy logic with duty ratio control for a step torque response in fuzzy logic with duty ratio control and DTC for a torque command of 2.4Wb with the drive output updated at a rate of 5kHz were used, the ripple generated was 4.67Wb (18-13.33) Wb greater and lesser values with ordinary DTC, while in fuzzy logic with duty ratio control, ripples was reduced further to 0.667b (2.4-1.733)Wb upper and lower values, assumed order response in flux value at starting of each voltage sector were neglected.

Load demands all the time can be met by hybrid generation systems using more than a single source of supply


Load demands all the time can be met by hybrid generation systems using more than a single source of supply. Hybrid system can be used to achieve higher generating capacities. In this project, wind-photovoltaic hybrid power generation system model is integrated together with a battery system to supply the load requirement. This system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK Software. Generally, Hybrid systems are more advantageous as individual power generation system is not completely reliable in operation. When any one of the system is shutdown the other can supply power. Figure 4.1 shows the block diagram of entire hybrid system.

Solar photovoltaic, Wind system and the battery are integrated together and connected in parallel to a common DC bus bar. To maintain the DC bus voltage each renewable source voltages are boosted up using boost converter. Then to meet the load DC voltage is converted to AC by using three phase inverter. Then converted AC supplies multiple load demand.




Hydroxyapatite HAP, (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is a inorganic compound. It is widely used as bioactive coating material for orthopaedic applications due to its bioactivity, high biocompatibility, and as well as its good oseteoconductivity. The calcium phosphate material are wildly applied as biomaterial, adsorbents, catalyst, chemical engineering, and catalyst supports and mechanical reinforcement, etc…. Especially it is building block of human bone and dental. In this research the surface morphology and crystal structure of the novel synthesis of HAP nanoparticles are investigated the pre and post load shock wave. This method give hydroxyapatite powder a Nano size of particles and high degree of crystallinity. The Ca/p ratio is very nearest to the stoichiometry value (1:67). It was shown that synthesised hap powder result in high purity powder and crystallinity after a calcination. The as synthesised powder are to be tested further for this biocompatibility.

Hydroxyapatite has been one of the most important inorganic biomaterial. It has been widely applied in biomedical field due to biocompatibility, bioactivity, noninflammatory nature, and excellent osteoconductivity, and nontoxicity (1-3). HAP is a mineral form of Calcium phosphate and the formula of hap is (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Calcium phosphate is one of the most widely investigated bio ceramic material and used clinically orthopaedic and dental aspects, such as bone filling and HAP used for artificial bone (4-5). It has been used in serval field, like dental implantology and biomedical application….and also used for electron spin resonance(ESR) (6). Calcium phosphate is the hydroxy apatite. This material is the promising material for implant and bone substitutes due to their biocompatibility, low density, chemical stability, and bio ceramic (7-9). The biological apatite refers to poorly crystalline nonstoichiometric carbonate containg HAP. The inorganic content varies from90% in dental and 65% in bones enamel (10). The pure HAP is a stoichiometric apatite phase, and it has a hexagonal structure. The Ca/P ratio of 1.67, which indicated to bone apatite. The most stable Ca/P salt at a normal temperature and PH between 4 to 12 (11). It has been reported that the synthesized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is structurally and chemically to that of natural bone tissue (12-13). The interaction of material with shock heated gas leads to formation of new stabilization of material in new crystallography phase. The phase can be induced in material under temperature and extreme pressure due to application for a very short duration (14). The phase transformation of HAP nanoparticles using different shock wave number loading technique were employed to modified its structure.
In this research the surface morphology and crystal structure of the novel synthesis of HAP nanoparticles are investigated the pre and post load shock wave. The Characterized and structural feature of the hap powder were evolved by using FT-IR, XRD, SEM.
The novel synthesis of HAP nanoparticle’s by using shock wave method. They are Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2 .4H2O, Diammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH3)2HPO4, and ammonium hydroxide NH4OH, were used. Deionized water was used throughout the synthetic process. All the received chemicals were of analyte grate(AR) and obtained from merk.
Pure HAP powder were synthesized under atmospheric conditions by using shock wave method. 0.5m Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and 0.3m (NH4)2HPO4 were dissolved into 100 ml of deionized water. The phosphate solution was added drop wise to the calcium solution by a constant stirring and we get white precipitate. Then the maintained PH between 9.5 to 10 by using ammonium solution. The stochiometric ratio of Ca/P was kept constant at 1.67 throughout the experiment. Now the sample is loaded at different number of shock wave like 50,100 with mech number 2.0 at applied pressure (2.367MPa) and temperature (896k). All the reaction kept in an oven at temperature 80oC for 4h. The obtained precipitate were filtered and washed three times by deionized water for the removal of residual ammonia and unreacted reactants followed by dried in an oven at 100oC for 3h. Finally the resulting powder were calcinated for 3 to 4hs and to obtain pure HAP. The received powder further characterized with different analytical techniques.

The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to determine the functional group of the hap sample. The spectra were recorded over the region of 400-4000 cm-1. The crystal structure and phase content of the sample were analysed by X-ray diffraction. The XRD was operated at 80kv and 10MA and the 2? range from 10 to 800C with a step size was 0.040. The crystallinity size of the sample can be calculated from XRD peak by using Scherrer equation. The SEM was use to investigated the morphology and size of the sample.
3.1 FTIF analysis of pure HAP powder
The FTIR spectra of HAP nanoparticle’s can be represent in fig.1. The hap structure contains OH and PO4 group. The broad band at 3410cm-1 and 1622cm-1 were due to the bending mode of the absorbed water while the sharp peak at 3570 cm-1 is stretching vibration of the lattice OH and the medium peak at 634 cm-1 cm-1 (OH) of hap. The band at 475 is indicated to the bending mode of PO4 group (?2). The peak at 1039-1085 cm-1 and 964 cm-1 correspond to the stretching vibration of PO4 group (?3 and ?1). The phosphate group appeared at two different wave number like 606 and 578 is due to the bending mode of PO4 group (?4).

The FTIR spectrum show in (Fif.2).The hap structure contains the OH broad peak at 3432 cm-1 and 1632 cm-1 are attributed to bending mode of absorb water and the medium peak at 625 cm-1. The band at 3580 cm-1 is represented by sharp peak of OH group. The ?1 and ?3 band of phosphate groups occur at 948 and 1086-1048 cm-1 respectively. The phosphate group was observed at 609 cm-1 and 578 cm-1 is corresponded to ?4. The peak at 484 cm-1 in can be assigned to ?2 mode

The FTIF spectrum (Fig.3) of the investigated powder show all characteristic peak of HAP. The sharp and broad peaks at 3580 cm-1 and 3419, 1652 cm-1 are corresponded to O-H groups and the medium band at 634 cm-1 OH of HAP. The peak at 465 cm-1 in can be indicated to ?2 mode of phosphate group and the band at 559 cm-1 and 606 cm-1 are due to ?4. The peaks at 954 cm-1 and 1086-2029 cm-1 are due to ?1 and ?3 mode of phosphate groups.

3.2. XRD Characterization of pure HAP powder
The powder diffraction and phase analyses were carried out by powder X-ray diffraction technique and a good correlation with stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. Fig.4 shows the XRD patterns of the synthesised HAP powder which are pure, the XRD patterns obtained of the hap sample. The XRD patterns of pre shock hap sample give sharp peak at 25.80, 31.68, 32,79, with (shock number 50) indicated the major peak at 25.87, 31,73, 32.86, and the peak at 25.86, 31.71, 32.86 can be indicated to sample with shock number 100. which were conformed the formation of hap. The pre shock wave loaded hap did not much differ from pure hap but slight change in grain size. The result are given in table.1. It is found that the XRD patterns of the hap sample are in good agreement with standard value of JCPDS data base () for hap which indicated that the crystal structure of hap sample is similar to the pure hydroxyapatite. The 50 hap showed lower crystallinity when compared to other hap. The crystallinity size of the sample can be calculated from XRD peak by using Scherrer equation.

S.NO SAMPLE 2?VALUE D grain size value (nm)
1 Shock number 50 25.87 43
31.73 28
32.78 28
2 Shock number 100 25.86 48
31.71 29
32.87 39
3 Controlled 25.80 49
31.68 33
32.79 41

The surface morphology and the size of the crystallinity of the synthesized hap powder were investigated by using scanning electron microscope. SEM image obtained for pure HAP nanoparticles were show in Fig (5). The particle size of HAP powder range from 20-30 nm with irregular shape. The image shows the hap particles are almost equal size and distribution. The formation of hydroxyapatite is conformed by SEM image.

Sleep Monitoring Report Six years or a third of eighteen years is roughly how much time of my life I have spent asleep


Sleep Monitoring Report
Six years or a third of eighteen years is roughly how much time of my life I have spent asleep. Six years in which the most complicated item in the known universe is practically defenseless. Better yet, six years where my mind almost completely departs from its usual realm of consciousness. A remarkable feature of most organisms with a brain; one I truly love. But why do I love to sleep? The question then arises, what is happening behind my closed eyelids and inside my brain? What benefit (if any) does sleeping do for me? Let’s find out.
In order to understand the data, I had collected, I needed to learn about sleep. Sleep follows patterns of bodily functions and brain activity; while we sleep, our brains exhibit distinct and unique stages of brain activity. This paper will discuss the patterns and stages of sleep and how marijuana affects them.
Sleep Cycle
When you fall asleep, your brain and body go through five stages of sleep in one sleep cycle. These stages of sleep have been classified by monitoring muscle tone, eye movements, and electrical activity of the brain using an electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG readings are able to measure brain activating by placing a number of sensors on the scalp. These sensors measure brain waves and classify them according to speed. Alpha-rhythms have the highest frequency, followed by beta-rhythms. Theta and delta waves are the slowest having the smallest frequency. A typical sleep cycle lasts around 90 minutes or so, during which the brain goes through each type of brain wave. The sleep cycle continues this process until it has been repeated approximately five or six times during the course of the night.

NREM Sleep
The first four stages are considered to be Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) or orthodox sleep. The function of these stages is to restore and rebuild the body after a long period of wakefulness. Vegetative functions dominate NREM sleep. The body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure decrease, muscles relax, and the body metabolism slows.
Stage I. Stage I is a transition between sleep and wakefulness which is usually only five minutes in duration. Short dreams may occur, usually involving images remembered from throughout the day. The brain’s electrical activity slows as exhibited by beta-rhythms on the EEG. The initial stage of Stage I sleep is the one I trouble the most with, usually spending an hour trying to fall asleep. However, I spend, an average of about 30% of my sleep in this stage. Since my recent uptake of marijuana, the initial stage of sleep comes instantly to me and I have no more trouble falling asleep.
Stage II. Stage II is a somewhat deeper level of sleep, characterized by slower breathing and heart rates. The EEG of stage II shows slow beta-rhythms, interspersed with periods of fast alpha-rhythms called sleep spindles and some delta-rhythms.
Stages III and IV. Stages III and IV are the deepest levels of sleep and have the slowest waves as measured by EEG: Stage III has both theta and delta rhythms, while Stage IV has only delta-rhythms. The body uses this time to maintain and restore itself. Growth hormone secretions are at their highest during these stages. Stages III and IV begin after one has been asleep for approximately half an hour. The first episodes of Stage II and IV sleep are usually the longest of the night. As successive cycles of sleep pass, these stages are replaced by longer periods of Stage V sleep.
NREM Sleep
Stage V. Stage V is remarkably different from the previous stages. The brain and body become active, increasing heart rate and blood pressure. The eyes shudder quickly back and forth, giving this stage the name Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. EEG patterns for REM sleep are much like those during wakefulness and include many fast beta-rhythms. It may even be that the brain works harder during REM sleep than when awake. REM sleep usually lasts anywhere from 11 to 25 minutes, typically longer in the later sleep cycles of the night. Approximately 25% of all sleep is REM sleep in adults, in children it is even higher. On completion of a phase of REM sleep, the brain and body return to Stage I, and begin another sleep cycle.
The differences between NREM and REM sleep tell a story. NREM sleep deals mainly with repairing and relaxing the body, while REM sleep has deals with the innerworkings of the brain. Even though they But they may certainly be interconnected. Researchers have speculated that NREM sleep also functions to recharge the brain by allowing depleted glycogen supplies to be replenished. Further hypotheses state that the high levels of neurological activity during REM sleep allows ions to be pumped across the membranes of neurons in the brain and stimulate another cycle of NREM sleep.

The competitive strategy adopted by ABC Inc


The competitive strategy adopted by ABC Inc., was cost leadership that aided garnering increased market share in the local market in an aggressive manner by triggering a price war cycle in the Chinese market.
The pertinent operational strategies adopted by the company laid stress on research and development as well as product innovation. This was followed by investing on resources for increasing production capacity by adopting a 24 hours factory day. The strategy of in house production of spare parts coupled with a planned move towards self-sufficiency in a dynamic market helped the company in a large way. A strategic fit operation that has resulted in reduction of manufacturing costs through the operations strategies was the key point.
The operations strategy is interwoven with the competitive strategy which has translate in to low product costs, offering the company a high degree of flexibility.

In order to ensure that individuals are able to implement and support the continuous improvement processes


In order to ensure that individuals are able to implement and support the continuous improvement processes, an organisation must cultivate or develop communication between management and staffs and stakeholders. Managers should use a techniques, for example brainstorming, using cause and effect, mind mapping, problem and solution and reward and recognition programs to ensure that the team members are encourage to participate in the continuous improvement process.

Mentoring is a relationship between two people in which a more experienced colleague uses their greater knowledge and understanding to support the development of a more junior or inexperienced team member. Coaches and mentors should appreciate and trust the responsibility they assume for their employees, and that they are suited in that role in terms of attitude, emotional, maturity and motivation. Mentoring is an informal structure of mentoring in which provides advice, listen to ideas, helps junior staff and see possible solution to problems. Employees must understand their role in the process and how they can contribute because it is important that you are able to give staff the skills in teamwork and decision making so that they can fully participate in the improvement process.

Texts are able to highlight the way individuals attitudes perceive the world


Texts are able to highlight the way individuals attitudes perceive the world, this is seen through the following texts, ‘The Simple Gift’ by Steven Herrick, a novel about 3 completely opposite lifestyles transitioning for the better through ‘the simple gifts” in life. And ‘New Boy’, a short film Directed by Stephen Green, a story about a boy transitioning into a new school after freeing from Africa. The ideas of Marginalisation and disconnection, Outcasts and Growth all greatly influence individuals for a better attitude towards the world.

Ideas of marginalisation and disconnection are seen throughout the novel, it creates difference in one another and takes away the concept of ‘The Simple Gift’, altering attitudes towards the world. In the chapter ‘Billy’s cave’ we are introduced to the contrast between Billy and Caitlin’s lifestyle. Billy outlines the “old bottles” and “tin drums” around “things he’d found” in contrast to Caitlin later describing her room with “its own bathroom” and “a large desk with a computer”. However due to Caitlin’s characterisation, she sees it as “a warm.. Billy’s cave”. Herrick utilises Caitlin as a ‘foil’ character, however in Billy’s cave she grows to believe that the little things in life, the people you’re with matter the most. The profound sense of marginalisation and disconnection are diminished throughout as her values differ and she begins to perceive the simple gifts of comfort with numeral possessions. Caitlin is seen “stepping into heaven”, ‘heaven’ being a metaphor for Billy’s world. “Billy smiling…proud of what he created”, Caitlin is consuming Billy’s level of appreciation and learns to appreciate like Billy, Her sense of marginalisation is burned away through her characterisation while she lays “long and gentle” in ‘heaven’.

New boy highlights the way in which difficulty transitioning into a new lifestyle influences an individual’s attitude towards the world. ‘Outcast’ is a theme used by Green to emphasise the struggle of being picked on and isolated in a new environment. The over the shoulder shot used in the opening scene depicts that the young boy is unsure about being the new boy at a school he has never been to. This is shown through the use of having a blurred camera in the distance of the shot. Green utilises this to reflect that the boy is struggling with the idea of having his first day at a new school after moving to a different area. The shot of the 3 boys in the hallway after lunch represent that the boys have bonded over something very small and that not all problems have to end in a battle and they can be resolved through the use of humour. It highlights that the boy is young and that life moves on and issues which seemed huge at the time fade away. Through the use of mise-en-scene and the boys facial expressions and body language it allows the audience to see that all three characters are now friends and that there problems with one another have been solve by them laughing over a small thing. Through Green’s use of visual techniques we are able to picture the transitions needed for a changed attitude towards the world.

The theme of Growth is used in novel to adapt and transition into an individual capable of influence attitudes towards the world this is evident through the house key given by ‘Old Bill’ to ‘Billy’, the key symbolises the solution to a better life, as well as the key to O.B’s past. “I held the keys. To wellington road”, is also signifying, ‘Billy’ holding the keys to the future. The ring ‘Billy’ bought for ‘Caitlin’ signifies more than just a gift/token of appreciation, the ring is also perceived as ‘Billy’ being the satellite that orbits ‘Caitlin’, “Beautiful green emerald ring… her eyes”, his (Billy) appreciation and attention to detail shows how an individual can transition and grow through appreciation of ‘The simple Gift’. Herrick’s use of kindness is seen to catalyse Caitlin’s transition as she cooks for Bill and Old Bill, “To the richest house in Bendarat”, A small joke emphasising their appreciation and humor to the marginalised lifestyles between the 3. Herrick’s use of the simple gift is used to influence the attitudes of the 3 towards a better world.

Attitudes towards the world are altered and transitioned through the authors use of the stated themes and texts. Through being pushed away and isolated, the individuals attitudes transition to gratefulness and appreciation leading to a positive outcome and positive attitude towards the world.

Space modulation techniques


Space modulation techniques (SMTs) have recently been emerged as one of the spatial multiplexing MIMO technologies that enhance the spectral efficiency of the conventional MIMO by embedding additional information via the transmit entities of the building blocks of the communication systems 3. In particular, the SMTs alter the on/off status of the transmit antennas in the transmit antenna array to convey an additional information. Therefore, single or multiple transmit antennas is/are selected to transmit the habitual data constellation symbols and the index/indices of this/these transmit antennas is/are considered another source of information. Altering the on/off status of the transmit antennas in the transmit antenna arrays, enables the use of limited number of radio frequency (RF) chains at the transmitter (TX) side, relaxes the sought-after inter-antenna synchronization (IAS) and permits the use of low complexity decoding algorithms at the receiver (RX) side 4.