Category: Etudes

1- Amazon Rainforest covers the area of more than 5


1- Amazon Rainforest covers the area of more than 5.5 million square kilometers.
2- Amazon rainforest is more than 50 million years old.
3- Amazon rainforest gives around 80% of total food we eat.
4- If amazon was country it would have ranked 9th largest country in the world.
5- The amazon transfers around 55 million gallons of water into the Atlantic Ocean every second.
6- Amazon rainforest is the largest of all tropical forests of the world.
7- There are about 3,000 varieties of fruits found in Amazon rainforest.
8- 20% of the oxygen on our planet is produced by the humid Amazon tropical forests.
9- Amazon is known as ‘lungs of the planet.’
10- The size of the Amazon rainforest is nine times the size of the Texas.
11- If deforestation will continue in same rate then we will lose Amazon rainforest in 40 years.
12- It is estimated that 2.5 million species of insects live in the Amazon basin.
13- The largest fish in the world – Pirarucu, reaching impressive sizes (up to 2.5 m in length) and having a record weight of 250 kg was caught in the basins of Amazon River.
14- The Kapok tree is the tallest in the forest.
15- There are numerous native tribes who live in Amazon forest; they have no contact with civilization.
16- If there is three degree rise in temperature then it will destroy 75% of Amazon rainforest.
17- Amazon rainforest is located in territories of nine countries- Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.
18- Brazil takes the largest share around 60% of the rainforest.
19- Amazon Rainforest is home to more than 40,000 plant species.
20- Because of deforestation, all most 137 spices of plants, animals and insects become extinct every day.
21- Henry Ford built a city in the Amazon rainforest to harvest rubber. But now it is ghost town
22- There are no bridges over Amazon River.
23- There is species of butterflies that drinks the tears of turtles.
24- The floor of Rainforest is very dark, only 1% of sunlight reaches to the ground.
25- 20% of world’s birds live in Amazon Rainforest.
26- The soil of Amazon is not fertile enough, that’s why people living there have to move very often
27- The Toucan bird is the largest creature in the Amazon.
28- In year 2005 and 2010 Amazon suffered drought, huge amount of vegetation was affected due to it.
29- There are 500 species of mammals and 300 species of reptiles.
30- There are approximate 250,000 Amazon natives.
31- Amazon tribes speak around 170 different languages.
32- Amazon has many dangerous species of snakes, spiders and animals.
33- It takes 10 minutes to reach rain to the ground, because trees are so tightly packed.
34- Amazon Rainforest receives 243 centimeters of rain ever year and 50% of is returned to atmosphere through evaporation.
35- 1 in 10 of all the world’s plant and animal species are found in the Amazon Rainforest.
36- Recently, the species of blind underground ants found in the Amazon and it is considered a direct descendant of the very first species of ants.
37- One hectare of Amazon forest have more than 750 types of tree, and 1,500 types of plant.
38- In the Amazon and its tributaries there are over 2 thousand different species of fish.
39- From the point of view of the water flow, the Amazon River is more than the next 8 largest rivers of the planet combined.
40- The number of species of fish that live in this region exceeds the number of species of fish in whole Europe.
41- About 1/4 of medicine we have today is from Amazon and it is only from 1% of examined trees from there.
42- From the Amazon River to the Atlantic, there is so much fresh water that almost 150 kilometers of salt water desalts the ocean.
43- The structure of forest includes 4 layers, each of which has unique ecosystem with its inherent flora and fauna.
44- According to scientists, every second about half a hectare of the rainforest disappears, because of the developing industry of neighboring countries.
45- Five centuries ago, in the Amazonian tropics, lived about 10 million Aborigines.
46- Many plants of forest are known to have anti-cancerous properties.
47- Amazon has such huge diversity that it is believed that ants on one bush are more than entire British Isles.
48- On the territory of these forests there live such endangered species of animals and birds as the golden lion Tamarin, as well as the Hyacinth macaw (parrot).
49- In the waters of the Amazon, a fish called Arapaima weighs about 136 kilograms. It is covered with a sturdy relief scale, the multi-layered composite structure, which allows it to survive in environment of piranhas.
50- There is a theory that the Amazon is actually a giant orchard left from a civilization that flourished in this area about 3,000 years ago.
51- The daily flow of the Amazon is equal to the water supply, which is enough to use the entire city of New York for 12 years.
52- Most of the water in the Amazon is formed because of the annual snow melting in the Peruvian Andes.
53- Many plants of forest grow to gigantic proportions. For example, tropical lilies on the water.
54- Martin Strel was the first man to swim the entire length of Amazon River. It took him 66 days to travel.
55- Some species of ants of Amazon are known for raiding neighboring colonies and taking other ants into slavery.
56- Under the Amazon flows another river called Rio Hamza. It is of same length as Amazon but much wider than it.
57- Once the Amazon started flowing into the Pacific Ocean, but then changed its direction in the opposite direction.
58- In Amazon Forest, a microscopic fungus is found which can survive by eating plastic.
59- On Amazon there is the largest river island in the world – Marajo.
60- The rainforest is very humid and has a larger temperature difference between day and night than between seasons.



In the building, eco friendly materials (also known as green building materials) are those in which low environmental damage activities have been carried out for their production, placement and repairs. They must be durable, reusable or recyclable, must contain recyclable materials in their structure and must come from resources in the area in which the construction activity takes place–they must be regional material. These materials must also be natural and should not be damaged by cold, heat or humidity.

Wood is the material with the minimum environmental effects on its manufacturing and life cycle and must be certified to ensure that it is produced and originally sustainable.

Fig-0.4 Renewable Materials in Construction Market
They are fully recyclable and compostable, such as cellulose, which can be extracted from discarded newspapers or papers. They can not produce waste and must achieve the highest efficiency in temperature regulation.
These have to be natural with no substances harming the ozone layer and without solvents or any other chemical products.

Fig-0.5 reuse of waste materials

Waste materials generated for the production of construction materials in other sectors, such as steel waste (marble, slate, etc.).Also, we have wastes generated by manufacturing processes like ashes or mud that are used, or the urban solid ones.
Such manufacturing concrete with recycled tire rubber; using sewage plant mud to make bricks or remains of wood and cork, and in particular vegetable fibers (bamboo, coconut, etc.) that once blended with cement are also used as insulators.

Fig-0.6 Elastogran, 2007
The amount of energy needed to produce building materials varies. The material’s embodied energy tries to calculate the energy that enters the entire life cycle of the building material. Aluminum, for example, has a very high level of embodied energy due to the high percentage of electrical power to be used in its production from mined bauxite ore; recycled aluminum usually requires far less energy to be refabricated. The overall environmental effect of a building is reduced by choosing materials with low average embodied energy. Transport energy is saved by using local materials on imports of the same type.
• Adapt Existing Buildings to New Uses:
Most buildings survive the objective they were designed to achieve. Many of these buildings, if not all, can be transformed to new applications at a cheaper cost than new buildings.

• Incorporate Reclaimed or Recycled Materials:
Many building materials are easily recycled into new materials, such as wood, steel and glass. Some can be entirely used in the new structure, such as brick or windows. Equipment, especially office partition systems, can also be moved easily from one location to another.

• Use Materials That Can Be Recycled:
When designing the building and choosing the building materials, focus on ways to use recyclable materials. This preserves the energy inherent in their production.

• Reuse Non-Conventional Products as Building Materials:
Unconventional building materials such as recycled tires, pop bottles and farm waste are widely available. These products decrease the need for new landfills and have a lower embodied energy that is intended to replace conventional materials.

• Size Buildings and Systems Properly:
Architects are encouraged to design as much as possible around standardized building material sizes. In the United States. S., this standard is based on a plywood sheet of 4’x8. ‘ Excessive cutting of materials into non-modular spaces results in more waste.

• Employ Nontoxic Materials
The use of non – toxic materials is essential for the health of the occupants of the building, who normally spend more than three – quarters of their time indoors. The adhesives used to make many common building materials can release chemical compounds into the air for years after the original building.


Many studies on the alternative use of plastic waste in different types of products have been reported and published. Plastic waste for high – grade resins was recycled from used and spoiled plastics, such as: industrial products, home appliances, cloths (textiles), mulches and films. Accordingly, plastic waste treatment and reprocessing techniques could be divided into four major categories which are re-cycling, mechanical, chemical and energy recovery.


Briefly , there are two types of plastic waste, plastic aggregates (PA) and plastic fibers (PF), which are most often used in building materials ,PAs are used for the replacement of coarse (CA) and fine (FA) aggregates.
Physical properties of concrete, including density, slump value, mechanical properties, splitting tensile strength, compressive strength, young module, flexural strength, abrasion resistance, impact resistance and pulse velocity, durability properties including resistance change.


1.5 Million Bottles Used to Build It!
A building some call ” the first plastic bottle structure built in the world ” was unveiled in Taiwan. This incredible building, known as the EcoARK, was built using a whopping 1,5 million PET bottle to raise awareness of the importance of recycling.
The EcoARK stands on three floors and has an amphitheater, an exhibition hall and a screen of falling water collected during the rainy season for air conditioning purposes.
The designers claim that the building is ” the lightest, most mobile, most breathable environmental miracle in the world, ” yet they insist that it is strong enough to handle typhoons and earthquakes-but it is certain that recycling enthusiasts are blown away. According to The China Post, the EcoARK was commissioned by the Taiwan – based Far Eastern Group three years ago at a price tag of around US$ 3 million, based on the three objectives of ” reduce, reuse and recycle. ” The company will donate the green structure to the city next month, where it will be use as exhibition hall during the 2010 Taipei Int’l Flora Expo in November.

The green building components include material efficiency, efficiency in water, energy efficiency, efficiency in indoor air quality, waste reduction. It is clear from the above that all efforts to preserve environmental resources are considering progress towards green and sustainable materials. Therefore, GRIFFA or LEED rating systems require the use of sustainable materials.

Green parameters building
Sustainable site encourages regionally appropriate landscaping
Water efficiency Smarter use of water inside and out
Energy and atmosphere use of renewable and clean sources of energy, generated onsite or off-site.
Materials and resources Selection of products and materials sustainably grown, processed, generated and shipped 4
Location and linkages built near already-existing infrastructure, community resources and transit
Innovation in design new and innovative technologies and strategies to improve a building’s performance beyond what is required by LEED 6

Raza Ayoob Mrs


Raza Ayoob
Mrs. Pelosi
AP Language
Aug 30, 2018
Annotations/Journal – Einstein’s Dreams
• Setting and Background Information:
o The novel is set in Berne, Switzerland in the spring of 1905. Einstein is twenty-six years old, working on his theory of relativity in his extra time. The novel portrays Einstein’s dreams on physics, time, and relativity. He published his paper on the special theory of relativity called “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” (ASU). Einstein’s Dreams records the dreams of a genius between April 14 and June 28, 1905, as he develops his theory of time and relatively (ASU). The dreams represent time in different worlds each behaving in a dissimilar way.

Important Symbols:
• Birds:
o Birds symbolize time in Einstein’s Dreams. People in the novel try to hunt down birds and once they are caught they die. This shows that people waste time on meaningless pursuits when one should use the time that they have wisely. The portrayal of the birds show that lost time cannot be gained back . Time is compared to a “Because this flock of nightingales is time. Time flutters and fidgets and hops with these birds. Trap one of these nightingales beneath a bell jar and time stops. The moment is frozen for all people and trees and soil caught within” (Lightman 174).

• Dream Figures
o The Dream Figures symbolize humanity and the ways in which humans deal with the complex nature of time in their lives. Their aspirations and uneasiness towards time are depicted as individual struggles, but their stories are relatable. The people in the dreams are meant to demonstrate the ramifications of time inside of their worlds.
• Time and Dreams:
o Time is a symbol of nature, and our inability to control it proves that nature is more powerful than humans. The novel shows time in many forms: a river stream, linear, body time, and mechanical time (ASU). We must obey it because we cannot change it. The novel deals with the issues of free will in our society.
• My Opinion
o Einstein’s Dreams is a vivid representation of the truths of society and society’s reliance on and interaction with time. By reading this book, I have gained a better understanding of the impact of time in our lives. He discusses a world where two times exist – mechanical and body time – people seem to live in two different realities. Lightman suggests that people can only choose one: for, miraculously, a barrister, a nurse, a baker can make a world in either time, but not in both times,” because otherwise they would live in two worlds concurrently, and that is unthinkable (Lightman 27). Adopting this idea into our everyday life, it must be noted that people always want to make the most of their time and have both the mechanical and body time but that is impossible so we must make a decision and choose only one. Time is what grounds people to a certain form of existence, if a clock did not exist one would sleep to what we consider odd hours of the day so time serves as a way for mankind to divide their lives into livable chunks. I have understood that time also gives rise to the context in which events happen. In one context an event might play out in a certain way and in another time it may play out in a different way due to a change in variables, for example, a city in a gray, biting, and frosty winter while the same city but in a different season like spring would be an entirely different place. Lightman states that time moves in three directions and decisions has three distinct outcomes. Whether consciously or subconsciously, people function according to the limits that time sets. Some carefully calculate all their actions in life but the world is a world of changed plans, leaving many things incomplete (ASU). I have also realized that those who are caught up in the past and are trapped in time will be alone and are less likely to be happy as compared to those look towards the future. Time has helped me heal whenever I have been in distress. Moreover, managing time wisely can help people lead more productive lives. The novel is an epitome of the realities of time and the struggle of the human spirit.

Work Cited
“EINSTEIN’S DREAMS.” Arizona State University, EinsteinsDreams.htm.
“Einstein’s Dreams Summary & Study Guide.” BookRags, BookRags,

The author of this article is a nurse and professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil


The author of this article is a nurse and professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil. This article primarily compares established articles about corneal issues in critically ill patients and the methods of how these issues are detected. Through specific research criteria, this article looks at 17 established articles. The methods used are as follows: Schirmer Test, Bengal Rose staining test, Fluorescein staining test, Test film tear breakup time, Oquestionnaire Ocular surface disease index, Meibomian gland dysfunction test, Green Lissamine test, Mcmonnies’ Questionnaire, Film evaporation Rate tear test and Phenol red test. These articles were from countries such as the USA, India, Canada, Korea, England, Japan, Nigeria, Thailand, Taiwan. This article is unlike the other articles I selected because new research was not conducted, it simply compares already established research.

Biodiesel in USA and Brazil Aastha Sinha Purdue University Abstract The main goal of the paper is to give an overview of biodiesel and a in depth look at the production


Biodiesel in USA and Brazil

Aastha Sinha
Purdue University


The main goal of the paper is to give an overview of biodiesel and a in depth look at the production, price and economic impact of the fuel in Brazil and the United States. Those two countries are the world’s largest producers of biofuels. The paper begins by giving a brief introduction to biodiesel and its history and usage in the world. The second part of the paper deals with biodiesel in Brazil. and that is followed by biodiesel and it’s impacts in the United Statements. The paper concludes with talks about the future of biodiesel in the world.
Keywords: Biodiesel, Brazil, USA

Biodiesel in USA and Brazil
What is biodiesel?
Biodiesel is a long chain of alkyl esters fatty acids derived from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats and recycled cooking oils, which can be used as a substitute for petroleum-based fuel in diesel engines. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended with petroleum diesel in any percentage to create biodiesel blends. In chemistry terms, biodiesel is fatty acid methyl esters and they are called biodiesel only when used as fuel in diesel engines and heating systems. It is one of different types of biofuels in the world others being ethanol and biogas. It is the fastest growing biofuels in the world because it is biodegradable and low greenhouse gas emissions.

Historical Background
The diesel engine was developed in the 1890s by inventor Rudolph Diesel to provide an alternate to the popular yet inept steam engines. It works on the principal of compression ignition. As the fuel enters the cylinder it self-ignites and burns rapidly, forcing the piston back down and converting the chemical energy in the fuel into mechanical energy.
For most of the 20th century petrochemical diesel was used to power the diesel engine, however World War II led to an interest in using vegetable oils to fuel diesel engines, due to large increase in petroleum prices. But the old engines couldn’t work with this alternate fuel, since they aren’t designed for it and the use of biodiesel didn’t take off. Though this interest resulted in a lot of research and in 1937 a Belgian scientist, G. Chavanne devised a process to extract ethyl ester from palm oil and this process created a product that was very close to modern biodiesel. The oil crisis the 70’s also pushed for more research in alternatives to petroleum. However, biodiesel wasn’t popular until the early 1990’s when concerns over the environment, energy security, and agricultural overproduction once again brought the use of vegetable oils to the forefront. By the early 2000’s, biodiesel quickly become one of the fastest growing alternative fuels in the world, due to its clean emissions profile and ease of use.
Biodiesel is produced straight from natural oils and fats. The entire process used to convert these natural oils to biodiesel is called transesterification. In the transesterification process a glyceride reacts with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst forming fatty acid alkyl esters and an alcohol Fukuda, 2001. A triglyceride has a glycerin molecule as its base with three long chain fatty acids attached. The characteristics of the biodiesel are determined by the nature of the fatty acids attached to the glycerin. During the process, the triglyceride reacts with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, usually a strong alkaline like sodium hydroxide. In most production, methanol or ethanol is the alcohol used and is catalyzed by either potassium or sodium hydroxide.
The figure below shows the reaction a triglyceride (fat/oil) with an alcohol to form methyl ester (biodiesel) and glycerol. The first step is the conversion of triglycerides to diglycerides, which is followed by the conversion of diglycerides to monoglycerides and then to glycerol, resulting in one methyl ester molecule from each glyceride at each step.

Source: Fuduka,2001
Environmental Benefits of Biodiesel
Biodiesel are a great alternative to other petroleum products because of many reasons. One of them is that it produces less greenhouse gas emissions as compared to petroleum diesel. An analysis completed by Argonne National Laboratory found that B100 use reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 74% when compared with petroleum diesel. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported similar values from various sources for its life cycle analysis of biodiesel.
Another great benefit of biodiesel is that causes far less damage than petroleum diesel if released to the environment and is less combustible. The flashpoint for biodiesel is higher than 130°C, where is it is 52°C for petroleum diesel. This makes biodiesel safer to handle and transport. The third benefit is that biodiesel is also produced from waste products and renewable sources.
Economic benefits of Biodiesel
The biodiesel industry has contributed greatly to the domestic economy of producer countries. Since it is domestically made, it also helps lower the imports of petroleum-based diesels and also decrease dependency on fossil fuels. At the same time, it helps create livelihood for a bunch of farmers and creates jobs for people to work in its industry. Using domestic products is always good for the economy of a country. Countries producing excess biodiesel can also benefit from export.

Current usages of biodiesel
Today, biodiesel is mainly used in the transportation industry. Any vehicle that operates on diesel fuel can use biodiesel, so most trucks and cars in the world can run on biodiesel. Low-level biodiesel blends like B2 and B5 are popular fuels in the trucking industry because of excellent lubricating properties, so the blends can benefit engine performance. Usage outside the transportation industry are basically also replacements for petroleum diesel. Biodiesels can also be used as heating oils. Also, due to its solvent properties is can be used to treat oil spills in a more environmentally friendly way Y.F, 2015.
An increase in the use of biodiesel fuel is projected in the coming years.
Global change in Biodiesel use in the recent years
The demand for biofuels has increased drastically in the last decade due to environmental concerns. Policies of the European Union and other countries of the world are changing to increase the reliance in biofuels. Examples of such policies include the Renewable Energy Directive in the European Union, that requires the EU to fulfil at least 20% of its total energy needs with renewables by 2020 and all EU countries must also ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020. Other countries like Brazil, China and US have introduced blending mandates to lessen dependency on fossil fuels. These reforms are expected to increase biofuel (including biodiesel) demands globally.
Today, the United States and Brazil are the top biodiesel producers in the world. This paper attempts to give a concise summary of biodiesel in these two countries.
Biodiesel in Brazil
Brazil’s Biodiesel Policies
Brazil first started to invest in research to find and develop alternative and renewable fuels in the 1930’s. During that time, it was a pioneer in biodiesel research. Later, during the oil crisis, the government began a program called PROALCOOL, which regulated the use of hydrated ethanol as fuel and asked for anhydrous ethanol that could be blended with petroleum gasoline. Unfortunately, after the drop of petroleum prices in the international market, this program was abandoned in 1986.
In the early 2000’s Brazil again began its discussion on the use of biodiesel, and many studies were done in the country. In 2002, a different method to convert called ethonolysis of vegetable oils was considered as the main route to a petroleum diesel substitution program called PROBIODIESEL. From then on, the country has continuously made efforts to increase biofuel use and decrease petroleum dependency. Today, Brazil has aggressive policies to promote the use of renewable fuels. The important policies in the country that paved the path for today’s policies include the National Biodiesel Production and Use Program (PNPB), the was started in 2004, to increase the acceptance of biodiesel.
In 2005, another law was passed that mandated a minimum 5% biodiesel by 2013. These requirements were constantly changed over the consequent years and by September 2014, the biodiesel mandate rose to 6%. Brazil also joined the Paris Accords in 2016. As of March 2018, Brazil increased the volume of biodiesel blended with diesel sold at the pump to 10%. The government is also working to increase the country’s biofuels output and decrease oil-product imports.
Production and Consumption
Brazil’s Biodiesel production is regulated by its government very closely. Its biodiesel production has been on a constant raise since 2015. The total Brazilian biodiesel production for 2018 is projected at 5 billion liters, because of the increase of the biodiesel blend to 10 percent (B10) in March 2018. Since, soybean is most prominent agricultural product of Brazil, so even though it features low oil content, it is the most use raw material in the production of biodiesel fuel Cremonez, 2014. According the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels National Agency (ANP), around 70 percent of biodiesel produced is made from soybean oil, and 17 percent is made from animal fat.
Brazilian Biodiesel Monthly Production/Deliveries (000 liters)
Month 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
January 226,505 245,215 319,546 271,388 255,361 337,818
February 205,738 240,529 303,594 300,065 259,812 338,420
March 230,752 271,839 322,692 323,158 335,069 452,310
April 253,591 253,224 324,526 348,485 347,603 446,164
May 245,934 242,526 338,851 328,814 369,316 383,126
June 236,441 251,517 322,185 292,772 359,236 466,918
July 260,671 302,971 341,094 337,435 387,236
August 247,610 314,532 344,038 327,183 399,997
September 252,714 312,665 330,388 313,309 398,707
October 277,992 321,603 359,166 341,024 409,344
November 265,176 316,627 324,662 321,560 386,941
December 214,364 348,962 306,526 296,145 382,671
Total 2,917,488 3,422,210 3,937,269 3,801,339 4,291,294 2,424,755
Source: ANP.

The consumption of biodiesel in brazil has two main factors, the mandatory blend and the GDP of the country. In 2017, the consumption of the fuel was 4.3 liters. Brazil has kept up the PNPB requirements fairly well, and this is the reason the consumption of biofuels in general in the country has been so high.

Biodiesel prices received by producers in Brazil are set by a public auction system. As of January 2018, the average price of biodiesel was around USD 735/ton.

Export and Import
The export of biodiesel is Brazil is fairly less compared to its production, because most biodiesel is used domestically. Brazil only exported 2.31metric tons of biodiesel in 2017, according to the APN. Due to its high biodiesel production, Brazil imports no biodiesel. This is because the PNPB requires that only domestically produced biodiesel is to be used in auction.

Biodiesel in the United States
USA’s Biodiesel Policies
Like in the case of Brazil, research into alternative energy sources was sparked by the oil crisis in 1970’s. However, like most of the world, United States started to take biofuels seriously in the beginning of 21st century.
The government of the United states has made many efforts to promote the use of alternative sources of energy. The policies have evolved from subsidization to mandate and due to this the production of biofuels has dramatically increased. In 2004, the Biodiesel tax credit was established, which give consumers a $1/gallon credit. Moreover, many different policies are currently being implemented to promote bioenergy, including the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
Most of the policies are followed, though they aren’t as well implemented as in Brazil. This is one place where United States can improve.
Production and Consumption
The production of biodiesel in the United States has also been on a steady raise, as was the case with Brazil. USA is the largest producer of biodiesel in the world. Biofuel production in the States uses corn and soybean as it’s main feedstock.
The biodiesel industry has commercial production facilities everywhere in the country. The biodiesel product in 2011crossed the one-billion-gallon production mark for the first time. In 2016 the market was a record high 2.8 billion gallons, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) figures. The industry’s total production continues to significantly exceed the biodiesel requirement under the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard and has been enough to fill the majority of the Advanced Biofuel requirement. As an added benefit, the industry supported about 64,000 jobs nationwide.
The consumption of the fuel in United States as also been on a raise steadily. And according to EPA, in 2017, the total volume of biodiesel came to 1.96 billion gallons.

Source: EIA Monthly Energy Review, Table 10.4
The price of biodiesel in USA is dependent on the price of soybean. As of October 2018, the price of biodiesel was 1.24k per ton according to Neste.
Import and Export
The United States imports biodiesel from countries like Argentina and Indonesia since production isn’t enough to meet domestic consumption. United States does not export significant amount of biodiesel.
To conclude this paper, I would like to say that biodiesel production is just going to increase worldwide and because of it’s many benefits, it is going to become one of the major fuels in the world. Both the cases (USA and Brazil), have shown as that biodiesel should regulated by the government and the use of biofuels enforced.
The future of biodiesels is very bright and the uses of this environmentally friendly fuel is sure to increase.

1. André Cremonez, Feroldi, Cézar Nadaleti, De Rossi, Feiden, De Camargo, . . . Klajn. (2015). Biodiesel production in Brazil: Current scenario and perspectives. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42, 415-428.

Talks about the production of biodiesel in brazil.

2. Biodiesel, Retrieved October 29, 2018 from

This entire website provided a lot of important recent data information on brazil and it’s biodiesel production, consumption etc.

3. Biodiesel Benefits and Considerations. (n.d.). Retrieved from

This website gives a easy to understand list of benefits of biodiesel.

4. Demirbas, A. (2009). Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review. Applied Energy, 86(1), S108-S117.

This article talks about the benefits and disbenefits of biodiesel in the world. A good resource for my paper.

5. Da Silva, S., ; Chandel, A. (2014). Biofuels in Brazil Fundamental Aspects, Recent Developments, and Future Perspectives.

This book helped me understand biofuels in general as well as the situation with biofuel in brazil. I only read three chapters (13,14 and 15), that were related to my topic.

6. Fukuda, Kondo, ; Noda. (2001). Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 92(5), 405-416.

Explains how oil and fats are turned into biodiesel.
7. Monthly Energy Review. (2018,October) Retrieved from

8. Ng, Yan Fei, Ge, Liya, Chan, Wen Kiat, Tan, Swee Ngin, Yong, Jean Wan Hong, ; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang. (2015). An environmentally friendly approach to treat oil spill: Investigating the biodegradation of petrodiesel in the presence of different biodiesels. Fuel, 139(C), 523-528.

Talks about how biodiesel can help in treating oil spills, I use this to explain one of the uses of biodiesel.

9. Pousa, Santos, ; Suarez. (2007). History and policy of biodiesel in Brazil. Energy Policy, 35(11), 5393-5398.

Gives the history and policies of biodiesel in brazil.

10. Seymour, F. (2015, March 5). Biofuel Subsidies: Bad Policies, Bad Examples for Development. Retrieved October 29, 2018, from

Talks about polices on biofuel and how they aren’t the best for development.

11. Stattman, Hospes, & Mol. (2013). Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies. Energy Policy, 61, 22-30.

Helped me understand the policies of biofuels/biodiesel in Brazil.

12. Vicente, Mart??nez, & Aracil. (2004). Integrated biodiesel production: A comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems. Bioresource Technology, 92(3), 297-305.

Talks about what biodiesel is and how it is produced

Life chances is an idea ‘for a happy


Life chances is an idea ‘for a happy, healthy childhood, as well as a protected and fulfilling adulthood’ (CPAG, 2016). Norozi, S. and Moen, T. (2016) states that childhood is socially constructed which means it is created and defined by society. The meaning of childhood differs between various times, places and cultures. There is a variation in people in different societies that think about what children should and should not be doing at certain ages and how they should be socialised. Improving children and young people’s life chances during their childhood stage enhances their quality of life for when they become an adult. Children and young people’s life chances can be decreased or improved by many factors whether it be due to their social class or ethnicity. This essay will explore the economic factors which are material deprivation and cultural deprivation, cultural factors such as language, parenting styles and the treatment from schools, and finally the social factors which are mental health and misuse of alcohol and drugs. The essay will evaluate how the factors affect the life chances of children and young people.

There are many factors that affect children and young people’s life chances economically, such as material deprivation, cultural deprivation and cultural capital. Material deprivation refers to the inability to afford basic resources such as adequate diet, housing, clothing and lack of income. Tanner (2003) states that the cost of the resources for school such as books, computers and uniforms have a disadvantage and a burden on working class families. Working class children may have to use cheap equipment or resources that have been use that has been passed down to them which can have a negative impact on the child’s self-esteem due to bullying. Bullying will then lead to working class children being socially isolated as no one will want to hang out with them which can lead to exclusion form the norms of children’s society. This links to the work of Ridge (2012) who talks about how working-class children are more likely to be bullied by their peers, due to lacking resources, therefore will affect their educational performance. This affects their life chances as social exclusion, among their peers, could continue into their adulthood which could cause exclusion from society as adults. This will make it hard for them to socialise with other people such as colleagues. Also, having a low income may restrict working class children from wanting to go on to university due to the fear of debt which can reduce their life chances due to them missing out on opportunities.
Although, material depravation may reduce the life chances for children and young people in schools, many schools now provide resources such as textbooks and books. Also, the government provides Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA), if the child is eligible, and will be given £30 a week to help with studying costs. This is only for children in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. For children in England, they will be able to get a 16-19 bursary fund to help with their studying costs.
Cultural depravation is a theory where a group, such as the working class, have the lack of certain norms, values, skills and knowledge that is needed for educational achievement. Parents who have a lack of interest in their children’s education can replicate the values they have. Working class have diverse goals, beliefs, attitudes and values from the rest of the society therefore, this results their children to fail at school. Douglas (1964) says that working-class parents do not think education is valuable, they do not take interest and are not encouraging with their child’s education as they are less likely to visit schools and discuss their children’s progress with teachers. This could result to working class children having low ambitions and lack motivation to do good in schools due to a lack of parenting encouragement. Feinstein (2008) also concluded this as he found that the education of the parent is an important factor that affects children’s achievement. Middle class parents are more likely to be better educated so they can help their children which gives them an advantage.
Feinstein (2008) claimed that well educated parents, such as the middle class, are more likely to use language that challenges their children to develop their own understanding whereas the less educated parents, such as the working class, use language that only let children make simple statements. This resulted in working class children underachieving. Similarly, Bernstein (1975) talks about the different language codes among the working class and middle class, that effect achievement, which are restricted code and elaborated code. Restricted code is when it is used informally which has short sentences and basic vocabulary. This is often used by working class families. Elaborated code has more complex sentences, detailed and wide range of vocabulary. This is often used by middle class, schools, textbooks and exams. He argued that the middle-class children had an advantage when writing essays, exams, class discussions and understanding textbooks as this required the elaborated code. Middle class children could switch between both codes whereas working class children are limited to restricted code as they are not familiar with elaborated code. This could then lead working class children to have a disadvantage in education and may attain lower grades in exams. Gov (2012) shows that disadvantaged children achieved 33.8% 5 or more A* to C grades at GCSE or equivalent including English and mathematics GCSEs, compared to 62.3% of all other pupils.
However, cultural deprivation can be can be avoided as the government has put up a Sure Start programmes (House of Commons, 2010) that provides support for parents and children aged 0 – 4 years old in disadvantaged areas. They help with the children’s learning skills, health and well-being, and social and emotional development. The sure start programme aims to give children the best start in life which suggests that this can improve their life chances. A criticism of Douglas (1964) on working class parents having a lack of interest of going to parents evening is that working-class parents usually have low paid jobs, so they tend to work more hours which means they do not manage to attend parent’s evenings rather than them not wanting to.
The cultural factors, such as language, parenting and school treatment, affects the life chances of children and young people. Language can be a barrier in schools for children that have moved to a different country with a different language. Kids Matter (2011) states that language is a barrier in schools because children who have moved from a foreign country may have difficulties communicating in English which can make it harder for them to socialise with other children and harder for them to read and write. This could be a disadvantage because they may not understand the exams as well as others and might find it difficult to express themselves if they know limited English. Some teachers might mistake their lack of English as lack of intelligence, which could be false, so a clever child might not be pushed to their full potential.
Different parents have diverse types of parenting styles depending on how they were brought up, their culture and their ethnicity. Archer and Francis (2007) has shown that parents of Chinese children are more interested in their child’s education and they encourage their child more than other cultures. This then leads to the child achieving higher. The statistics from department for education (2015) have shown that Indian and Chinese pupils have outperformed the white British average. Lupton (2004) says that Asian parents teaches their children to be respectful to their elder which has a similar effect towards teachers in schools as this supported the school’s behaviour policy. This creates an advantage for Asian children as they are seen as behaved students, so teachers will think they are hardworking and are more likely to do better. Whereas the working class British parents have a negative attitude towards schools and have low aspirations for their children.
Teachers shape and limit what children can achieve for example, they are responsible for differentiating work, assigning students to sets and exam tiers. Teachers treat children and young people in schools differently and there can also be stereotyping and racism. Stereotyping is when a group or a person is thought to represent a fixed idea. For example, all black children misbehave and are violent. According to Gillborn and Youdell (2000) teachers are quick to discipline African Caribbean children than others for the same behaviours. Teachers may misinterpret their behaviour, which creates conflict between the teacher and child reinforcing stereotypes. This affects African Caribbean children’s life chances as they may feel that their teachers are underestimating them as they are being labelled due to the stereotype teachers have created. This links to Rist’s (1970) findings that teachers labelled children not by their ability but on appearance and whether they were from an educated background, middle class family, or not. Teachers could label children due to their ethnicity for example, if an African Caribbean child is labelled a failure by a teacher, they are more likely to put the child into a lower tier exam, so the child will only be able to achieve a maximum of a grade C, this will make the child not be able to achieve their best of their ability. When children are labelled a failure, the child may start to believe the label to be true and this is known as the self-fulfilling prophecy therefore creating ethnic differences within schools.
However, sometimes having negative labels can have the opposite effect for example, Fuller’s (1984) findings on black girls who were labelled as low achievers. She concluded that the girls rejected their negative label, so they proved their teacher wrong by getting their school work done and getting good grades, which lead them to succeed. This shows that having a negative label can have a positive outcome if the child has the right mindset and believe in themselves rather than what teachers say.
Socially there are many ways in which children and young people’s life chances are affected. Some reasons are mental health and drugs and alcohol misuse. Mental health is our psychological, emotional and social wellbeing as it affects how we think, act and feel. Mental health affects children and young people in schools and can interrupt their day to day life. For example, someone with anxiety may find it difficult to concentrate at school due to them worrying about other things which leads them to being behind in classes. People with anxiety will also experience physical symptoms such as, difficulty breathing, sweating, increased heart rate and blurry vision. This will affect their life chances as they do not like being in unfamiliar places and social situations which gives them a disadvantage when making new friends and can lead them to being socially isolated. Green et al (2005) found that mental health affects 10% of children and young people who are 5 – 16 years old.
However, some people say that mental health issues are not increasing but rather people are more aware and accepting of mental health issues. There are many services for people suffering from mental health and schools are now educating children and young people about the different types of mental illnesses as they now have mental health and awareness and resilience training that Young Minds (2017) offer to schools. There is also Mental Illness Awareness week to educate and increase the awareness of mental illness.
Alcohol and drug misuse affects children and young people’s life chances as they can harm them mentally and physically. Drinkaware (2016) states that abusing alcohol can affect young people as the long-term effects are brain damage, cancers and raising blood pressure. The short-term effects can be disturbed sleep, memory loss and impaired judgement. This can affect their education as they might not have got good sleep, so they will not be able to concentrate in lessons. They might miss school if they are admitted to the hospital as says that Alcohol concern (2016) says that “33 children are admitted to hospital each day in England, with drink related problems.” Not being able to attend lessons means that they will be behind in subjects which can lead them to getting low marks in exams, making them not being able to attain their highest potential.
There are many types of drugs that young people may abuse such as cocaine, heroin and marijuana. They can affect children in different ways for example, cocaine can increase heart rate and decrease appetite, heroin can make them drowsy and relaxed, and marijuana can affect attention, memory and ability to learn. Drug abuse can affect young people as drugs affect how the brain processes which can mess with how you think, remember and concentrate. It will affect their health as they may become unwell due to the substance they are taking which changes the chemicals in the body. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (2017) suggests that young people who smokes marijuana daily usually get lower grades and are more likely to drop out of education. This affects the life chances of young people as they may not finish school which will be a disadvantage when they search for jobs in the future and they will not be able to achieve their highest potential.
Nevertheless, there are services that help young people with alcohol and drug abuse such as Adfam and Westminster Drug Project (WDP). Adfam (2017) have a range of services that help families and those affected to have a better life and not make the same bad decisions. WDP (2016) provides many services such as therapy and rehabilitation to help their clients change and reduce their addiction. These services will help young people who are abusing drug and alcohol improve their life chances as they will be able to regain their dependency. Their brain development will start to develop properly which means that they will be able to function well in school.

It has been shown, therefore, that economic, cultural and social factors do affect children and young people’s life chances in many ways and each factor has diverse ways in which they can be affected. The economic factor affected child and young people in a way where they lacked a certain thing such as resources, money, and norms, values, skills and knowledge which affected their life chances. Whereas, the cultural factor affected them by their ethnicity, background and how they were treated. Finally, the social factor affected children and young people emotionally and by their health. All these factors contribute to the life chances of children and young people negatively however, they can be prevented and improved which enhances their quality of life.

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????????????????? ???? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ( Thong , 2011 ). ?? ???? ????? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???????. ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? , ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? . ( Collins & Aronson , 2017 ). ? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????.????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? .(Hashemian & Jarahi , 2014 ) .

Acknowledgement I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Miss



I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Miss. Ruwini Karunarathna who gave me the perfect knowledge to do this assignment successfully. Then I would like to thank my friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this assignment.

After the globalization, there are drastic changes in every field of Industry. Due to these changes the Industrial sector has started to adopt the new technologies and techniques. The ruthless competition was created after globalization. It was a really challenging task for the manufacturing and others sectors to sustain in the environment. For this purpose they have made crucial reforms in major department like Purchase, Quality, Production and Marketing. After globalization there was shift of paradigm from sales to marketing. Now the concept sale is nearly abolished, and today the Marketing departments in organizations are facing new challenges while catching the target market and retaining them. This is happening due to various factors like Social media, E-Marketing, E-commerce. The buying behavior of the Customer is also changing tremendously. To counter the situation the industries have already started to adopt new marketing strategies and tools.
Table of Contents

Acknowledgement i
Abstract ii
Table of Contents iii
Introduction 1
Social Marketing 2
Relationship Marketing 3
Green Marketing 4
Personalized Everything 5
Better video content 5
Mobile marketing 5
Conclusion 6
References 7
Appendices 8
Gantt Chart 8

In early ages of Industrialization, there was the concept of Selling it totally depends on the supplier that what should be offered to the customer? At what cost? When & where? Etc. There was not any awareness about who is the customer? What are their needs? What is his choice? After 1970 the economic trend was shifted from rigid economy to open economy. That was the real starting period of concept „Marketing management. At that time various concept of Marketing like target market, segmentation were developed. Now after globalization, the situation is totally different. Number of competitors are there, who are manufacturing the same product. Customer is looking for quality, variety and reasonable cost. He is becoming choosier, hence it is necessary to develop new strategies of marketing by considering buying pattern of customer. It is essential to develop new strategies for sustainability as well as to enhance the market share of organization. Market leader strategy, Market follower strategy, Market follower strategy are three traditional strategies. Apart from that in the today’s word of E-commerce it is required develop and establish the new strategies. There is a profound impact of latest technology in the field of marketing.

Social Marketing
• “An umbrella term that defines the various activities that integrate technology, social interaction, and the construction of words and pictures.” – Anvil Media
(Mass Comm ; pop arts Chapter 8 Flashcards | Quizlet, 2018)
We need to have creative idea for social marketing.

• Social Market-Talking about today world there is 96% of Millennial have joined the social network. The quickest developing fragment on Facebook is 50-55 years old.76% of individuals trust shopper proposal of procurement choice. There is likewise a little section of individuals on the planet which put stock in superstars. It is found in explore that organizations who haven’t taken a shot at social promoting is looking down deals.

• Size of social market-The span of social market is as large as you can consider there are zillion of person to person communication site. Presently a day’s normal individuals spend more than 1hr and on long range social networking website. Site like Google, Facebook, YouTube their fundamental pay is from the commercials on their site.

Relationship Marketing
What is Relationship Marketing?

“A long term Stagey to build relationship with individual customers. Relationship Marketing is a philosophy of doing business, a strategic orientation that focuses on keeping and improving current customers rather than on acquiring new customer.”(Relationship Marketing And The Ritz Carlton Hotel Company, 2018)

Work of Relationship Marketing

The reliable use of up to information learning of individual client to item and administrations configuration keeping in mind the end goal to build up a nonstop long haul connection. The concentration upgrading the association with existing clients that is to hold existing client.

Background to relationship marketing

Most organizations showcasing exertion is centered on getting client with little consideration paid to keeping them. The normal organization loses between 10% to 30% of its clients every year.

Green Marketing

• What is Green Marketing? It is the showcasing of items that are dared to be ecologically protected. Along these lines green promoting joins an expansive scope of exercises, including item adjustment, changes to the generation procedure, bundling changes, and additionally altering publicizing. Other comparable terms utilize set out Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing.

• How it is functioning Green” is maybe one of the greatest patterns to hit the cutting edge commercial center. Wal-Mart is making strides toward environmental friendliness. Hollywood famous people are eco-evangelists. The 2008 Olympics set the new highest quality level for economical occasions. Religious pioneers are making the condition an ethical issue.

• Green testament today, numerous associations’ ecological procedures rotate around showcasing efforts and repackaging contributions to tout Green cases. Purchasers are for the most part befuddled about what, as organizations hurl around “Green” with little understanding regarding what it truly implies. In spite of the fact that numerous confirmations exist today—numerous environmentalists grumble that they are not sufficiently hearty to make enduring change.

Personalized Everything

As we work to individualize everything from Coca-Cola jars to shoes, mass customization has progressed into personalization. For a few organizations, this will mean guaranteeing touch focuses are particular and person. For others, it’s essentially streamlining the acquiring procedure and making it more responsive.

Better Video Content

Content is as yet lord, however the sort of substance that standards the web is evolving. Social substance, surveys, web journals, papers, and eBooks are generally still vital parts of showcasing, yet video will be the anger advancing. Considering the accomplishment of games like Pokémon Go, expect virtual and expanded reality to bring us into what’s to come. Brands that neglect to join visuals and recordings will be left by the wayside.

Mobile Marketing

“Mobile marketing can use a wide range of other tools, such as advertising SMS/MMS, SMS Contests and voting, location-based marketing” (Prikrylová & Jahodová, 2010); “it can be used to collect CRM data and, once again, it is possible to make use of viral content especially thanks to the availability of mobile Internet” (Castronovo & Huang, 2012). “Mobile advertising offers the opportunity to make promotion effort with higher effectiveness and lower costs in respect of the target segment” (Selvi, 2014).


It gave us examination of the objective market. Through different illustrations we figured out how associations design about their item to be showcased, attempting to snatch an effect on clients is a testing and innovative assignment that includes broad research. Gigantic measure of cash is spent on promoting ever year and it appears to develop quickly with every year .Our general public is overflowed with notices each place we look, along these lines requiring organizations to discover new and one of a kind approaches to remain in front of the opposition.

The Colors of Malaysia is a collection of road exhibitions that was first propelled in 1999 by the Ministry of Tourism to feature Malaysia’s tourism spots and in addition to grandstand Malaysia’s cultural legacy through music


The Colors of Malaysia is a collection of road exhibitions that was first propelled in 1999 by the Ministry of Tourism to feature Malaysia’s tourism spots and in addition to grandstand Malaysia’s cultural legacy through music, song and dances.
The yearly occasion was first held at Dataran Merdeka with social exhibitions from each state. In 2004, the occasion moved to the National Stadium in Bukit Jalil, keeping up the first Street Performance topic. The 2005 version was held at Stadium Merdeka while the 2006 release at Dataran Merdeka. In 2007, it was held at Putrajaya Boulevard before coming back to its original setting, Dataran Merdeka in 2009. In 2010, a Mega Dikir Barat peformance by 5,500 members has been given the award by the Malaysia Book of Records for the biggest number of members in a show. (“Mega Endang Citrawarna,”2013)
Every year, Citrawarna offers a different theme and performance concept to diversify tourists’ experience (Habullah,2016). No less than 5,000 participants dressed in their colourful best ethnic costumes will perform their home state’s traditional song and dance. The Peninsula is made up of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Negri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor, Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan. Sabah, the Federal Territory of Labuan and Sarawak on the mystical island of Borneo, make up the rest of fascinating Malaysia.
Each state will have on procession the plain best of their individual culture, be it through dance exhibitions and cultural shows. Guests can hope to see many colors and to hear vibrating and throbbing traditional sounds from string instruments and drums. (“The Many Colors of Malaysia,”2003)

The San Francisco Bay Area load is supplied by both internal generation and imports from outlying 500-230 kV substations and their connecting 230 kV transmission lines


The San Francisco Bay Area load is supplied by both internal generation and imports from outlying 500-230 kV substations and their connecting 230 kV transmission lines. Most of the existing generation is concentrated in the northeast Bay Area (the Pittsburg/Contra Costa region). Major generating units in San Francisco are the Hunters Point and Potrero power plants that are also major sources of reactive power support in the area. Tesla, Metcalf and Vaca Dixn 500-230 kV substations are the three major bulk transmission sources that provide additional load-sewing support for the Bay Area. Various 230 kV interconnections from Moss Landing Power Plant and The Geysers geothermal plants to the Bay Area also result in higher power import capability for load serving purposes.
In addition to the voltage support provided by generation in the area, there are several synchronous condensers (dynamic devices) and shunt capacitors (static devices) available for voltage support at 115 kV and 230 kV voltage levels. Newark 230 kV substation near Silicon Valley also is a major location in the Bay Area because of its strong electrical interconnections with neighboring substations via 230 kV and 115 kV networks.
One of the increasingly growing concerns for electric utilities is Voltage stability and reactive power-related system restrictions. Blackouts in the northeast region in August 2003 provide a strong reminder to the electric utility industry regarding the importance of “proven” new technology applications such as Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), devices to help the grid withstand “system swings” and severe disturbances especially when load is remote from the generation sources. Analysis and mitigation of voltage instability has become an integral part of planning and operating studies for transmission asset-owning companies.
In recent years San Francisco has suffered from severe power supply disturbances and studies have shown that the area’s current transmission infrastructure is insuf¬ficient to accommodate anticipated load growth over the near future.
Pacific Gas ; Electric Company (PG;E) study alternative solutions to facilitate the shutdown of old synchronous condensers at PG;E owned Hunters Point Power Plant, which are reaching the end of their original design life. These aging assets incur high maintenance and operating costs and face the challenge to meet increasingly stricter NOx emission requirements under environmental regulations.
Six synchronous condensers at Newark 230 kV substation primarily provided voltage support for the South Bay and Silicon Valley in the past. There were serious technical, operational and environmental problems with the six condensers at Newark substation. Due to rapid load growth in Silicon Valley, system reactive margin had been reduced considerably thereby increasing the risk of voltage collapse. Consequently, the synchronous condensers or some other VAR source was vital to system security in this region. All synchronous condensers are expensive to maintain compared with traditional substation equipment. Periodic overhauls are required to ensure reliability. These overhauls are expensive because the condensers are large horizontal salient-pole machines. A mobile crane is required to disassemble the condenser for inspection and repair. In addition, the cooling water system required high maintenance. The condensers ar