Category: Etudes

Understanding Supply Chain Management Prepared by

Etudes

Understanding Supply Chain Management
Prepared by:
Damandeep Singh, 0717233
Date:
September 11, 2018
IBM 303: 004 Global Trade Logistics
Instructor David James St. Pierre
1. By providing this picture in the power point slides, supply chain adage denotes that each commitment of supply chain must be solid and should be well interlinked to each other, so that the bond is shatterproof, and the process goes smoothly without any breakage. In the second picture that one bond gets broken, at that point it will highly influence the entire supply chain as the procedure will get interrupted for example if there is a shipment coming from India to Canada by ship the product got transported in intact condition from India and after that when it reaches the mother hub in the middle of the way there is a big break in the process that the person who labelled the product was incorrect and the product reached to Thailand instead of Canada this shows that if there is one breakage then it can affect the whole process and at last customer suffers, and it will likewise make issues for different bonds to finish their job.
As seen, every step of supply chain is equally important on its own and has its own particular task. So, adage is crucial to the effective and efficient operation of a supply chain.

2. The success of any business is intimately linked to the performance of the supply chain. Along with the design of supply chain strategy, the design of the supply chain is most important in any business. Supply chain is independent on every single part and task of the Supply Chain Management as each has its own and importance and they all are well connected to each other in different ways. Hence, each of the front- end characteristics of Supply Chain Management are significant to the primary and long- term success of overall supply chain.

3. The fundamental difference between what we call logistics and what we refer to as supply chain is that supply chain is an enormous concept which consists of all the planning and management activities involving sourcing, procurement, warehousing, packaging and labelling, inventory management with invoicing and documentation and all the logistics management activities and it also includes activities of planning, distribution, financing, implementing etc. On the other side Logistics is a part of supply chain and thus it is micro level study which involves planning, implementing and controlling the flow and storage of raw material and finished goods and other information from where it was started.

4

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4.1 Identify relevant legal requirements and procedures covering confidentiality, data protection and the disclosure of information
When you work with children and young people, you need to have some idea about legislation. The legislation is an area which is constantly under review, and you will need to keep up to date through reading.
Every Child Matters (England 2003) based on Children Act 2004
This Act is important because it shares information between professionals. It came into being after the tragic case of Victoria Climbie when there was no communication between authorities. It aims to transform children ‘s services through maximising opportunities while minimising risk, for children and young people. Every child has the support that they need to be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being.
Data Protection Act 1998
In schools, it is essential that you know lots of information about children, so you effectively care for children while they are with us. For example, you ask for information as health or medical information, records from previous schools, or records for children who have special educational needs. The information is confidential and should use only for the purpose for which was collected. If the information needs to pass on to others for any reason, the parents should sign a consent form. Under the Data Protection Act 1998, an organisation, which holds information on individuals, should register with the Information Commissioner’s Office ( ICO). It is designed to ensure the confidentiality of the information. There are eight principles of practice that state that information must be processed fairly and lawfully, be used only for the purpose for which it was gathered, be adequate, relevant and not excessive, be accurate and kept up to date where necessary, be kept for no longer than necessary, be processed in line with the individual’s rights, be kept secure and not be transferred to other countries without adequate protection.
You need to know a range of information in your role as a teaching assistant, from issues around the school to the individual needs of every child. If you should not know what you can speak to, your first point of contact should be your line manager. Many teaching assistants working in primary schools are parents of children at the same school, and other parents can put pressure on them to reveal information. You should not pass any information about schools or pupils before you know if it is correct to do. You should be very careful when taking photographs for displays or filming children and you should check if parental permission is. Moreover, you should not pass on information to other children in the school, other parents, other professionals, and visitors.

4.2 Describe the importance of reassuring children, young people, and adults of the confidentiality of shared information and the limits of this
It is important to respect confidentiality because we gain and keep the respect for others. When you are gathering information, you will need to reassure others that it is confidential and any information will not be passed on to others. So, it is very important that you let others know your obligations. Parental consent must give before sharing any information about children with other professionals. However, if there are any issues which say that the child is at risk from the parents or when there is a legal duty placed on the school to disclose information, this happens. In addition to this, there are cases when information on children should be accessible to all staff, for example, when children have specific medical conditions such as asthma and epilepsy. Some schools display photographs of children in staff rooms or dining areas to make sure that all staff is aware of these children. But the staff should remove the photographs when the premises are used by others because information is confidential.

4.3 Identify the kinds of situations when confidentiality protocols must be breached
When someone confides in you, it is important that you remember them that there are situations in which you should tell others. So, you should share the information only with the person who needs to know it. The confidentiality protocols must be breached when there is a case of suspected child abuse or neglect, or when a child or young person is at risk. In this situation, you should tell the child or young person that you have to tell someone who can help them. You should always remember others that if they divulge something, you are not able to keep it to yourself and maintain confidentiality.

Digitalisation- An Emerging Trend in Human Resource Practices Ms

Etudes

Digitalisation- An Emerging Trend in Human Resource Practices

Ms. Neeru Gupta

Asst. Professor, Department of Management
Maharaja Agrasen University

Abstract : This paper attempts to walk around the use of IT tools in HR practices by the organizations. It also put light on the changing role of E-HRM in the Indian organizations. E-HRM is an integrated, organisation wide electronic network of HR data, , services, tools, information, applications and transactions.

This paper tells the scene of E-HRM by which organizations concerned in technological working. The HR managers use these innovations in a positive way by changing strategies in a digital way for the upbringing of the organizations. This paper tells the impact of technology on various HR practices like

recruitment,selection, training & development and performance management. Paper highlights the working of Indian organizations With the help of examples like Reliance, SBI and Bank of Baroda by using digital tools in their HR Practices

. This paper also highlights the future scope of digital tools in industries for making the organizational culture more valuable. It also states the benefits and necessity of using IT Tools in HR Practices.

Keywords: Human Resource Management,

Information Technology, E- Human Resource Management and HR Practices.

I. INTRODUCTION
In the twenty first century the most important technology is the power of the digitilation. Digitalization is present throughout every business and everyday lives. The world has undergone many changes based on dominance of IT tools and digital media It is an emerging approach to business practices and employee’s behavior. The digitalization is rapidly growing because of the dynamic behavior of the market. Now the organizations have to adapt these new technologies for the better communication among employees and to acieve the competitive advantage. Digital technology plays a vital role in Human Resource management (HRM) and effects its functioning in numerous ways. Apart from Human Resource Management System (HRIS), it also affects the other HR Practices.The HR practice of Human Resource Management (HRM) is concerned with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organizations. It covers activities such as strategic HRM, Human capital management, knowledge management, organizational development, resourcing (Human Resource planning, Recruitment ; Selection and talent management) and performance management, learning and development. Digital technology helps the organisation to increase its productivity by maximizing its most valuable assets ‘Human’. Digital HRM is a way by which strategies, policies and practices can be effectively implemented. “An umbrella term covering all possible integration mechanism and contents between HRM & IT aiming at creating value within and across organisation for targeted employees and management” (Bondarouk ; Ruel,2009 P.507). Most of the tasks associated with HR are outsourced. As a result, business requires more new expertise from their HR team.

II. WHY BEING DIGITAL IN HR
PRACTICES
Today companies face new challenges in the way they approach employee recruitment, retention and engagement.New digital consumer practices overlap into enterprise and lead to changing employee expectations, in particular with regard to the digital environment.Digitalization is a tool which speeds up the communication process by reducing the cost which helps the organizations to be more productive and to work more effectively and efficiently. The technological innovation helps in bringing new jobs and methods of working in an organisation. The HR professionals use these innovations in a positive way by transforming strategies in a digital way for the upbringing of the organizations. Digitalization also helps in enhancing the skills of the employees like working on software’s and computer skills. IT (Information Technology) has divided the benefits into three categories:-

Transactional systems which cut costs by substituting automating and labor processes

• Informational systems which enhance productivity and cut costs by giving the information backbone of a firm

• Strategic systems which increase innovativeness by providing new goods, services or the entry into the new markets.

From the above it is clear that digital tools which we use help the organizations in increasing workplace safety, improving quality of work, increasing productivity, reducing cost and employee engagement.

III. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study has been undertaken to achieve the following objectives:

1. To gain insight on the present status of use of digital tools in HR practices.

2. To understand the working and successful implementation of digital tools in HR practices in India.

3. To emphasize the use of E-HRM in Indian Industry.

IV. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study is conceptual in nature. Hence, secondary source of data mostly comprising journals, research publications, and internet has been used to achieve the stated objectives.

V. E- HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT (E-HRM)-
LANDSCAPE

E-HRM refers to an integrated, organisation wide electronic network of HR data, information, services, tools, applications and transactions.

The application of any technology enabling managers and employees to have direct access to

HR and other workplace services for communication, performance, reporting, team management, knowledge management and learning in addition to administrative applications (Watson-Wyatt, 2002).

The figure highlights the several functions of the HR contained within contemporary E-HRM technology. It divides the whole functions into two areas one is –Process technology and other is Human Capital Technology.

Process technology provides support for basic transactions. These functions include managing payroll, personal/ organizational data and routine administration and are aimed at reducing costs and achieving HR operational efficiencies through automation.

Human Capital Technology aimed at supporting people management activities such as performance management, skills profiling and analytics. These functions are more strategically oriented due to the wider impact on business outcome.

The impact of Hr technology is likely to be some combination of process and human capital. E-HRM technology is advancing faster as many organizations are working on web technologies like e-recruitment by the portals or websites, performance management software’s and e-learning for their workforce.

VI. DIGITALISATION AND HR PRACTICES IN 21st CENTURY

A. Digitalization in Recruitment

The recruitment industry is the oldest industry among the other service industries of the world. Technology has a positive impact on recruitment. Recruitment is the process of attracting potential candidates for the organizational anticipated vacancies. E- Recruitment provides many digital tools.

Types of E- Recruitment

1. Operational E-Recruitment- this includes basic transactions characterized by short term applicant relationships global messages and major automation.

2. Relational E-Recruitment- this is characterized by development of real applicant relationships through better feedback, the personalization of applicant messages and the use of web 2.0 tools, such as social network sites.

3. Transformational E-Recruitment- it is anchored in a global talent management strategy, consisting in identifying the critical positions, and then attracting and retaining individuals who correspond
the established profile (Foster 2005). Employer branding and reputation could be a solid support.

E-methods Used in Recruitment

a. Company’s websites are their own websites having a link for careers options where candidate can sign in with current openings or submit the resume for better opportunities. Many companies use this method of recruitment like idea, HCL, Wipro etc. these companies have separate recruiters team for responding towards these activities.

b. Commercial Job portals are the websites that allows employees to post their job requirement for the fulfilling of their vacancies and candidate post their resume for getting the job opportunities. The job sites in India are Naukri.com, Monster. Com, Times job, shine.com etc.

B. Digitalization in Training Development

IT tools have affected the way of formal learning in a work place. In the era of digitalization, E Learning provides an enormous opportunity to the employees by making learning more interesting and attractive. “E Learning refers to the use of internet technologies to deliver a broad way of

solutions that enhance knowledge and performance” (Marc Rosenberg). The training changes from basic training activities like lectures, case studies, role play etc. to the more complex techniques like technology based learning, video, internet and computer based. Many public as well as private sector companies are adopting the concept of E- Learning. According to Nagy 9″E-Learning refers to learning that depends on or is enhanced by electronic or online communication using the latest information and communication technology”.

C. Digitalization in Performance management

Performance measures the employee efficiency and effectiveness in the achievement of organizational goals. E-Performance Management is the planning and implementation of Information technology in managing Performance Management System. E-Performance Management is the part of E-HRM. IT enabled Performance Management comes to an effective tool to leverage the full benefits of the system at a comparatively lesser cost of administration. The E- Performance Management allows the organizations to maintain the record of core skills and competencies into the employee’s managing process. With the emergence of

technology, performance appraisal software’s are

becoming common in the organizations. Performance management software helps the HR to carryout performance of the employee in the most effective way, by saving time and cost. Performance management software provides a innovative approach to employees performance appraisals. It not only provides performance review but also helped in increasing productivity, relationship, behavior, development and core competency.

Figure: Format of Performance Appraisal software

Source: www.appraisal-smart.com

VII. USE OF DIGITAL TOOLS IN HR PRACTICES : EXAMPLE FROM

INDIAN INDUSTRY

A. E-Recruitment in Reliance Company

Reliance Company provides e- recruitment which is designed to make the recruitment process more effective and efficient. Reliance values the innovation, initiative and entrepreneurship. It gives an opportunity to join them in the process of actualizing your potential. The system works on the following steps:-

1. Basic requirement- candidates have to fill their basic information like name, email id, experience in years, qualification and skills.

2. Uploading Resume- After filling all the necessary details candidates have to upload or submit their resume/ CV.

3. Screening- after submission of resume, reliance recruitment team short list the potential candidates to complete the module of the company.

4. Interview- Reliance team after short listing goes through the process of interview. They provide the facility of video conferencing for the candidates who live outside station.Above example shows there is a need for organizations to have a cost effective, fast and

convenient system for the personnel selection. IT tools are the latest tools in hiring the personnel’s.

B.

igitalization in SBI- Gyanodaya E Learning Gateway

It is the e- learning portal of the SBI which provides the training facilities in order to enhance the skills of the employees. The portal has the learning modules for various posts like chief manager, branch manager, cash officer and field officers separately. Every employee of SBI is able to access portal that have their data in HRMS portal. The idea behind this portal is to provide learning at anytime and anywhere. By using this portal the employees are free to choose any module and they can get certified by accessing tests.

Getting Started with Portal:-

The portal has the following steps-

1. New Users Registration- the first step to access e- learning is to get registered with

the application. The employee has to click on “New User Registration” link to get login and employee has to enter his PF no

and Date of Birth. After entering this detail he has to click on “Get Details” button. The details of the employees from HRMS will be computed in your personal details and official details section. After that employees have to enter work details and contact details. The employees after filling this information are able to create his account.

2. Registering for lessons- to register for the

courses and lessons employee has to click on “course registration” menu from “my courses” in “my workspace”. In course
registration page employee has to click on
“enrollable courses” menu. To register for the lesson employee has to click on join link that is below the course title.

3. Accessing Lessons- after registering on my courses employees get list of registered courses, then he has to access

lesson of the course from “course tools”. The lesson content will be opened in new window from where employees access the lessons.

4. Taking Tests ; Quizzes- to access test and quizzes click on “Test & Quizzes”
from course tools. Employees will be

directed to tests ; quizzes window. Under “take an assessment” section, list of test ; quizzes will be displayed. Click on “Begin Assessment” to take the test. At the ends of the test click on “submit for grading”
button to complete the test.
D

System requirement for the SBI E-Learning portal is very normal. It requires the use of Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 3.x or above.

Digitalization in Bank of Baroda (E-Performance Management)

Bank of Baroda has started the Human Resource Network for employee services. It covers the entire gamut of HRM function in the bank. Bank covers all the HR processing by the Oracle Core HR Module. This software helps the employees to undergo with various learning courses. The Performance Management System is implemented foe all officers w.e.f 2009-10 onwards. System starts from performance planning and goal setting and takes it forward into performance review, discussions, feedback and development. The new system is business linked, highly objective and fully transparent with individuals owning and managing their own performance themselves. Baroda sujhav and [email protected] of baroda.com are the idea channels where new employees can share their ideas. The bank elicits new ideas from employees with structured rewards provisions for the best ideas.

Conclusions

Hence, the increased need of IT tools in HR, replaced the traditional methods by the modern methods. Organizations are trying to reduce their cost and time to achieve profitability. Organizations are trying to convert their HR Practices in to E-HR Practices. In the era of globalization, Companies want to expand globally by reaching the people all across the world companies needed end to end visibility in their value chain and enhanced process efficiency throughout the organizations. Industries in India like Telecom industry such as Reliance and service industry like SBI- Gyanoday E –Learning Portal, Bank of Baroda are trying to convert their HR practices into E-HR practices. These companies used different software’s for different HR Functions.These web technologies help the organizations in achieving competitive advantage.

These organizations shows the importance and need of digital tools in Indian Industry Most of the companies for their HR activities are dependent upon third-party consultants, so they need more experts in their HR team. The concept behind E-HR is to create organizational culture that enhances the working knowledge of the employees by adding value to the business.

References

• Handbook of Research on E-

Transformation and Human Resources
Management – by Bondarouk, Tanya
• Aligning Information Technology,

Organization, and Strategy: Effects on
Firm-By Ferdinand Mah

• Electronic HRM in Theory and Practice-By Tanya Bondarouk, Huub Ruel,J.C Looise 2011.

• Michael Allen’s 2009 E-Learning Annual By- Michael W. Allen

Web Resources

• https://mybanklearning.sbi.co.in/xsl-portal (Accessed on 2 February 2016).

• http://www.bankofbaroda.co.in/hr_initiati ves.asp (Accessed on 2 February 2016)

• http://www.rcom.co.in/Rcom/aboutus/care

ers/careers_applyonline.html (Accessed on 3 February 2016).

As mentioned

Etudes

As mentioned, gait analysis can be as modest as observation to note irregularities made visible by the naked eye. Systematic gait analysis however, incorporates a top-down and bottom-up visual orientation, ideal upon identifying subtle deviations. A top-down orientation delivers statistics on symmetry, quantity, and quality of arm swing; pelvic rotation; pelvic tilt; and lateral trunk shift. Bottom-up orientation analyses ankle, subtalar, midfoot, and hallux motion symmetry, quantity and quality. Focus of these different approaches pinpoints potential exaggerated motion or insufficient propulsion from a locomotive unit, shock absorption, stance stability and energy conservation.

Core postural muscle stability is suspect upon extreme drops of pelvis crest and pelvic rotation is detected. This simply calls for more tests upon gluteal muscle function in open and closed kinetic chain positions. A significant observation would also be excessive hip adduction with knee valgus, producing an increased dynamic quadricep angle. Knee varus thrust, expressed as lateral knee shift may be indicative of lateral knee complex instability or osteoarthritis of the medial knee compartment. Early heel rise during propulsion is a common compensation for hallux limitus, sesamoiditis, or ankle equinus.

Starting in the 21st century an intense debate began to arise with respect to the determination of death

Etudes

Starting in the 21st century an intense debate began to arise with respect to the determination of death. Despite legal and ethical consensus that death may be decided by either neurological criteria or traditional cardio-pulmonary criteria. Physician-Assisted Suicide has been one of the most complex, emotionally charged, and controversial issues in the healthcare arena. The question of whether terminally ill patients are entitled to a physician’s aid to end their suffering has been met with controversy on both fronts. Questions such as does a person have an inherent right to autonomy and free thinking, when does the welfare of the individual supersede their own judgment or wishes, when is it permissible and when is it not, to the more religious moral and existential questions. Research studies published in multiple medical journals have confirmed, a small percentage of healthcare professionals, including physicians, that have admitted to having hastened a patient’s death. Societies around the globe, are deeply divided on the question of whether PAD may be legal, and if so to what degree. Recently published surveys show two-thirds of the United States population approve of PAD as a choice for terminally ill patients. Furthermore, there has been consistent evidence of secret Physician-Assisted deaths being done in countries where is it prohibited and illegal. The Hippocratic Oath of do no harm, promote beneficence, and respect individual autonomy is taken very seriously by most persons in the medical profession. Moreover, the Hippocratic Oath does not explicitly state but does suggest, Physician-Assisted death lies outside the prevue of a physician’s professional responsibilities; and as such, leaves no legal obligation to honor such request from patients. In the 21st century, however, the world has seen a much-needed cultural shift and stance on the issue of Physician-Assisted suicide. Increasingly, more Americans have begun to take interest in end-of-life measures and contemplate those crucial decisions, for example, what it means to have a good death. The Hastings Center Report Essays Has Physician-Assisted Death Become the Good Death by Franklin G. Miller, Physician-Assisted Death by Timothy E. Quill ; Bernard Sussman, Physician-Assisted Death in the United States: Are the Existing Last Resorts Enough by Timothy Quill, and Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Conservative Critique of Intervention by Daniel Lee tackle the hot-button issue all from different lenses and perspectives. All four essays have one common theme that leaves one puzzled, one cannot say definitively what would or should be in the best interest of an individual who is terminally ill unless put in the same position. The preceding essay I will tackle the issue of Physician-Assisted suicide from an unbiased analytical perspective using the scholarly essays as a reference point to evaluate all sides, pulling information from other sources to further delineate my position. In presenting the facts as they are, including the moral and religious dissensions as I see them, my hope is to present an argument for Physician-Assisted death as an individual’s rights issue, not one for the courts or church to decide.
To begin an educated discussion on the issue of Physician-Assisted suicide, one needs to understand what is it. PAS is described as the voluntary termination of one’s own life by the administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect aid of a physician. In the United States, and in most jurisdictions within the United States PAD is prohibited with specific statutory provisions or judicial application of more general statutes. Pain and suffering though complex problems are prima facie treatable. One must ask, however, to what extent does palliative and hospice care give relief from pain and suffering. An argument could be made, the amount of pain and suffering one can endure is subjective and different from person to person. Moreover, what does one do as a physician or family member when palliative care no longer works? For example, consider a patient with advanced bladder cancer and is nearing death. This patient must make tradeoffs between adequate pain management and sedation, he or she reaches a point when just being out of pain is the goal. When do last resort options become acceptable? How much pain is too much pain? This I believe is the million-dollar question plagued by the medical professionals and the community. Physician-assisted suicide and Death with Dignity laws have tried to address such issues by allowing terminally ill patients to hasten an inevitable and unavoidable death. The United States Supreme Court cases Washington v Glucksberg and Quill v Vacco challenged the constitutionality of the prohibitions on Physician-assisted suicide. Although the Federal courts found no constitutionally-based right to PAD, it did suggest that such matters should be decided in the laboratory of the states. Society must, therefore, decide when Physician-Assisted Suicide is and is not ethical and permissible, as the issues of moral and legal permissibility are closely linked. Those in favor of Physician-assisted suicide have cited as an argument, the Principle of Double Effect or passive euthanasia, which places a great deal of respect for individual autonomy, and a patient’s right to refuse life-saving equipment, or if already connected to such machines having them withdrawn. The PDE does not, however, allow a physician to give an individual who wishes to die a medication that would directly and knowingly cause their death. For example, a patient who wants to die may be given an injection of morphine to alleviate pain with the foreseeable result that they will die. The key, to the PDE in this example, is that the physician does not intend to cause the death of the patient. This could be counter balanced with active euthanasia, which describes a person who wishes to end their life, and who is given a medication to alleviate pain with the intended result that they will die. In this example, it is both immoral and illegal because it is considered direct Physician-Assisted death. Supporters of the PAS argument, additionally, hold that by recognizing the rights of competent people to choose the timing and manner of their death, when faced with terminal illness by default allows for a death with dignity and should be honored. Those who are against Physician-assisted suicide may argue, Physician-Assisted death can never be morally and ethical as it contradicts the traditional duty of the physician to preserve life and to do no harm. Which, coincidentally, coincides with the Hippocratic Oath taken by all medical professional and inherently understood by most traditional religious beliefs. Furthermore, critics of the right to die argument assert, that PAS if legalized may lead to potential abuses as social forces would condone the practice. Lee for example, in his essay, argues in favor of medical paternalism, that we always ought to intervene to prevent self-destructive behavior. Critics contend, that clear compromises like terminal sedation are both repugnant and can be abused, since full formal consent may not be sought. They also argue, on the grounds of equity, saying that it is unfair that patients who depend on dialysis or a respirator can achieve a comparatively easy death when they choose, by simply ending life-sustaining supports. Which in some states like Washington, Oregon, Montana, and Vermont is fully legal under certain circumstances. What’s more, how can it seem fair, when patients who are not dependent on life-supports are not able to choose when they die but must wait until the inevitable end. While these arguments continue, increasingly the terminally ill cry out in agony for the right to end their suffering. If, however, proponents and critics alike, could work together, and collectively adopt a compromised point of view this may allow for a more narrowed focus on improving pain control, accelerating research, and broadening the education of physicians.
Issues of end-of-life treatments, refusal, and withdrawal of some forms of medical treatment at the end-of-life may be the least discussed topic with patients, doctors, and families, yet, may be the most important discussion needed to be had. This may be because in the 21st century when an individual is diagnosed with a terminal illness, current practices by physicians and hospitals is to initially resist giving such treatments. A formula known as the QALY was devised by health care economist to quantify the actual value of person’s life, weighted against the number of resources it would cost to keep an individual alive and pain-free. Furthermore, this formula gave physicians and hospitals, a reference point for setting priorities to certain patients and further delineated who should and should not receive costly treatments. However, in certain instances standard health insurance contracts, as well as Medicare and Medicaid policies, give payers the right to refuse to cover such treatments considered not medically necessary. As a result, patients may lack the resources to pay for such end-of-life measures. Which then leaves health care providers and physicians in a difficult position of either treating without getting paid or refuse care because of the inability to pay. Even still, many health care providers acquiesce in the face of family or political pressures. This difficult balancing act is unlikely to change, unless one, proponents and opponents alike, can agree collectively on issues of end-of-life care and Physician-Assisted death, and two this consensus should be embodied through legislation, that sets forth, medical treatments that will be paid for by private and government health insurance.
According to the American Institute of Medicine, most Americans do not have proper access to long-term palliative care and unfortunately a third die in pain that could have been prevented. With the advancement in medical technology, developments in neuroscience over the past century, coupled with the understanding of pain control, the process of dying has been complicated. And therefore, a movement has begun to push state-of-the-art palliative care as the standard of care for any end of life suffering. More importantly, these advances in medical technology and treatments have given ways to save patients’ lives. With many welcoming these advancements in pain control, there are those who argue, current laws and policies constrict the freedom of a dying person from choosing the time and manner that they wish to die. In the 21st century no longer can a patient or their family members assume that his or her physician has their best medical interests at heart. As today, many physicians are being urged, to consider the cost to society of a patient’s care, and judge whether a patient is worthy of such expense. As a result, many unlucky patients, and their families, who are seeking comfort, authentic compassion, and informed consent at the end of life are left feeling hopeless and lost. It is therefore important, one does not forget these patients and their families who themselves have a stake in the Physician-Assisted suicide debate. It is these individuals and their loved ones whose lives hang in the balance. When an individual is told that an illness is terminal, many questions begin to appear and answers to these questions come, not with the never-ending doctor’s appointments, treatments or tests that consume the individual and their family members but in the comfort of solitude. final life questions, have a very personal and spiritual nature.
A small proportion of Americans have written advance directives, such as living wills, and medical powers of attorney. Their usefulness however, has long been questioned by the medical professionals who must draw guidance from them. Critics have argued, advance directives tend to be either too general or too specific to shed light on, what a patient would, or would not want in the event they can no longer make those decisions for themselves. Furthermore, studies show that close family members do not always know or have correct knowledge of what a patient would want. The best directives seem to be those that appoint a health care proxy, but even their effectiveness is open to question. With that said, despite their limitations, it is better to have an advance directive than not to have one as medical revolutions have changed the experience of death.

In recent years, final life questions have demanded society reinvestigate its position on end-of-life measures, and increase the debate about the morality and permissibility of PAD. In doing so, society must prepare itself, to understand both sides of the debate. A crucial point must be acknowledged, for the debate to traverse in a positive fashion. Cultures and moral beliefs differ from geographic area to geographic area. With that said, the question then arises to what extent is this moral or immoral. Physician-assisted suicide, on the one hand, is considered unethical by many faith traditions who adhere to a stricter moral understanding of life’s final journey. Specifically, most religious traditions consider PAS immoral and unethical, as it directly aids a patient in committing suicide and goes against Gods teachings and plan for humankind. There are exceptions, however, to this general rule, for example, Catholic Health Care ethics follow the natural law theory which holds that when the burden of life-sustaining extraordinary care such as a ventilator is greater than the benefit it provides, such care may be withdrawn (Hunnell, 2012). These actions are not seen as causing the death of the patient but allowing the patient to die from his or her underlying illness. The American Baptist and Southern Baptist Convention differ in their points of view about aided dying. The American Baptist, have adopted an advocacy policy, that calls for increased emphasis on the caring or palliative goals of medicine which preserve the dignity and minimize the suffering of the individual and respect personal choice for the end of life care. The Southern Baptist, however, view end-of-life choices violates the sanctity of human life and therefore preservation should be sought at all cost. Modern medical technology, however, not only has found a way to prolong life but has opened the door and demanded that faith leaders actively reconsider their beliefs. As leaders of faith lend their voices to the Physician-Assisted suicide debate, they must also find ways to explore and express how morality and religious views inform end-of-life care.
Justice demands that each person is treated rightly as they deserve according to what is owed to them or due to them. The concepts of justice are closely linked to normative ethics such as human rights and fairness. In clinical practice however, these decisions are made daily and as such demand the strictest of standards. Medical futility comes into place at what point does one conclude that the individual’s life is better off alive or dead. What many doctors do not realize is the importance of the process of decision making. Without giving enough weight that the clinical decisions are final and do not consider spiritual, cultural needs. Arguments for and against medically assisted death no longer center on just the ethics and the morality of suicide. Instead, the argument should shift to how much pain a patient should be expected to endure before drastic end-of-life measures may be taken. Moreover, one must ask how far God’s love reaches into the midst of suffering.
To conclude, I read a very lengthy New York Times article, which follows John Shields, who was diagnosed with a hereditary terminal form of amyloidosis. The article follows Mr. Shields and his very public journey to a Physician-Assisted suicide. Mr. Shields stressed the importance of having control over the terms of his death. Expressing that it made him feel empowered over the disease rather than crippled by it. Mr. Shields further, believed that dying openly and without fear could be his most meaningful legacy. That statement alone, I feel resonates with most Americans and persons around the globe, who suffer from terminal illness. I believe as they do it should be about choice and giving full informed consent, laying on the cards on the table and allowing the patient and the family an opportunity to make the decision about what is best for them. Finally, where does one draw the line in the sand, when a family member is diagnosed with a terminal ill disease or your son or daughter is diagnosed with a terminal hereditary disease? What does one do when the person they carry in their heart can no longer recognize their face or their touch.
Annotated Bibliography
Cerminara, K. L., Meisel, A. (2017). End-of-life care. The Hastings Center Report. Hastings Center, NY. Retrieved from: https://www.thehastingscenter.org/briefingbook/end-of-life-care/. Web.
Dallas, K. (2016). How religion changes the medically assisted suicide debate. Desert News: UT. Retrieved from: https://www.deseretnews.com/article/865648072/How-religion-changes-the-medically-assisted-suicide-debate.amp. Web.

Gloth, F. M. III. (2017). Physician-assisted suicide: the wrong approach to end of life care. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. MD. Retrieved from: http://www.usccb.org/about/pro-life-activities/respect-life-program/physicianassisted-suicide-the-wrong-approach-to-end-of-life-care.cfm. Web.

Hunnell, D. (2012). Medical journals show increasing support for euthanasia. LifeNews.com: Washington, D.C. Retrieved from: http://www.lifenews.com/2012/08/24/medical-journals-show-increasing-support-for-euthanasia/. Web.
Lee, D. E. (2003). Physician-assisted suicide: a conservative critique of intervention. (1, 17). The Hastings Center Report. Hastings Center, NY. Print. Miller, F. G. (2017). Has physician-assisted death become the good death. The Hastings Center: Hastings Center, New York. Retrieved from: https://www.thehastingscenter.org/physician-assisted-death-become-good-death. Web.
Quill, T. E. (2008). Physician-assisted death in the united states: are existing last resorts enough? (5, 17). The Hastings Center Report: Hastings Center, NY. Print.
Quill, T. E., Sussman, B. (2017). Physician-assisted death. The Hastings Center: Hastings Center, New York. Retrieved from: https://www.thehastingscenter.org/briefingbook/physician-assisted-death. Web.
Religion & spirituality. (2018). Death with dignity political fund. Portland, OR. Retrieved from: https://www.deathwithdignity.org/learn/religion-spirituality. Web.
Seay, G., Nuccetelli, S. (2017). Engaging bioethics: an introduction with case studies. Taylor & Francis Group: New York, NY. Print.
Teacher, Law. (2013). Is assisted suicide ethical and moral nursing management and professional concepts. Retrieved from: https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/medical-law/is-assisted-suicide-ethical-and-moral-nursing-management-and-professional-concepts-law-medical-essay.php?vref=1. Web.

03

Etudes

03.03 Who is the Boss? 
I have interviewed Mr. Josh A. Brian, owner and President of Brian Signs on the Southside of Jacksonville, Fl. His number is (101) 555-4585.

 
Me: Mr. Brian, I would like to thank you for your time and let you know that this will help me understand business more. So, what inspired you to start a business?
Mr. Brian: Well, first of all, that’s a good question. It’s already a running family business so called the ‘Brian Alarm’. I had a few extra supplies to start up with which helped me to form and gather an idea of starting my own sign business.
Me: That is very interesting, what exactly are the goods your company offers?
Mr. Brian: Our company offer our major products, which are the signs, decals, and banners.

Me: And how do you organize your business?
Mr. Brian: My company is a Limited Liability Company.

Me: Great, could you tell me what the advantages are to the way you organize your business?
Mr. Brian: Well, the nature of my business is really flexible and there isn’t a set of way or process I have to do things. This is the best part of my business that I personally like, having flexibility and freedom in what you love doing is the best first step towards success.

Me: I surely agree but are there any disadvantages?
Mr. Brian: There isn’t much disadvantages but there are some physical responsibilities that I have to take care of, such taxes and providing health care for my employees, but this is not a hurdle for me and I personally don’t take it as a disadvantage.

Me: I see. Would you ever seek to sell stock in your company? Why or why not?
Mr. Brian: No, since my company is LLC and it is very small in size, I wouldn’t, unless my business was in a high-tech field. Either that or having an excess of 3000 employees.

Me: Well Mr. Brian, what would you say was the greatest challenge in starting your company?
Mr. Brian: I have had faced number of challenges throughout my journey, first of all it wasn’t easy for me to even think about the business as I was involved in running a family owned business, but since I had enough experience in this field, I decided to go for it anyway. The second challenge for me was finding the right location and making that correlate with my target market.

Me: Ok, last question. What advice would you give a young person who wants to start his or her own company?
Mr. Brian: Oh, that’s an easy one. I would say “Just go for it”. You know what that means?
Me: Not really, could you please explain it to me?
Mr. Brian: It means just go for your dreams but first, get enough education which is your parachute so if you land up falling you have a safe way of landing.

Me: Thank you so much Mr. Brian for your time, it was really a pleasure talking to you, thank you again for your time!
Mr. Brian: Pleasure is all mine, I hope you learned something from me. All the best for future!
Reflection
Full name: Mr. Josh A. Brian
Job title: Owner – President
Contact information: (101)555-4585
It was a nice experience interviewing Mr. Josh A. Brian, I learned a lot from him. Such as: at first it is always hard to take the first step. And to me, the first step is generating an idea, if I love doing something and I want to convert it into business, I will have to think and brainstorm to make that idea feasible. As Mr. Brian mentioned he was firstly involved in a family owned business and he had enough experience about the mechanics of the it, which in my case this is different. I have never been involved in running any kind of business before. If I were to start a business, it would be selling products online through different websites and social media. I really think that this is the best thing that I can do. Although it requires me to invest some fair amount to start. I want to start this business because this is the era of technology and people do not often like to physically go to some shop or store to buy a single product. They would much likely prefer to order that product online and receive it at their doorstep in no time. This is going to be very profitable for me as I already am into technology, it wouldn’t be so hard for me to learn and adapt the techniques behind this business.

In the first few weeks of my placement on the acute mental ward

Etudes

In the first few weeks of my placement on the acute mental ward, I was put into a situation which changed my outlook on nursing. My story that has built my experience had no significance to me at the time, but the following day I realized something very important which I will take with me on each following shift. My patient was an elderly woman admitted for a suicide attempt and depression. I naturally felt sad for her when I found this out while reading her charts. I planned to spend the day talking about her feelings, supporting her, and empathising for her.
She approached me and said “Can we talk, I am feeling so depressed”. I straightened my back, sat down and mentally prepared to have a meaningful conversation. I wanted so desperately to be that counsellor that would say the right words to give their patients a positive outlook on life. However, a few minutes into the conversation she was talking about her make up. This went on for a half an hour. She then proceeded to talk about how she prepares different meats in her meals for a very lengthy time. After a short time my patience had faded thin, I stopped listening to half of the things she was saying, and I wanted to get up and leave. I was shocked that she wanted to have such shallow conversations and I dreaded speaking further because I knew they would turn into lengthy encounters about anything other than what I wanted to talk about.

Title

Etudes

Title : CHALLENGES FOR JUDICIARY POST LIBERALIZATION
Subject : Sociology

Submitted By
Name and Roll No. : Monarch Pandya
Semester : V
Under The Guidance of : Dr. Deb Hota

Submitted to

GLS Law College,
Gujarat University,
Ahmedabad
Academic Year 2017-18

Table of Contents

SR. No.
Topic
Pg. No.
From To
Declaration 3 3
1 Introduction 4 6
2 Review of Literature 7 10
3 Discussion of the main Topic 11 13
4 Conclusion 14 14
5 References/ Bibliography/End Notes 15 –

?
Declaration

I Monarch Pandya Roll no. :41 declare the work entitled “CHALLENGES FOR JUDICIARY POST LIBERALIZATION” being submitted to GLS Law College, Gujarat University for the project in the subject of Sociology is original and where the text is taken from the authenticated books, articles or any other web sources appropriate reference is given.

It is true to the best of my knowledge.

Name : Monarch Pandya
Roll No : 41
Semester : V
Date : 19september,2017

GLS Law College,
Gujarat University,
Ahmedabad
Introduction
The role of the judiciary is highly important in any democracy. More specifically it has enhanced itself to a great extent post development of welfare state and liberalisation. The Judiciary is known for delivering many land mark and prominent judgments that has improved the conditions of life for a number of groups and individuals. At the same time, it is constantly exposed to new challenges and new dimensions. Indian Judiciary today faces many impediments like huge amount of delay and pendency of cases, inappropriate Judge Population ratio, lack of infrastructure, lack of funds, faith in the system, accessibility, impact of legislations, procedural pitfalls etc. It is fighting to keep the faith of the people in the institution alive by dealing with various obstacles in the way of quick and qualitative dispensation of justice.
Many highly specialized areas of law like Intellectual property, Corporate law, Cyber law, Human rights, Alternative dispute resolution, International business transactions, are emerging and we have to be updated with new laws and amendment to provide timely and qualitative Justice. With the increasing challenges, the role of judicial institutions has also increased many folds. The concept of Judicial education has tremendously changed and the stake holders of Justice delivery system have also increased. The Judicial Institutions have to align its role of imparting Judicial education with the Judicial functioning. The Institution has to contribute as a change agent to assist judges in Managing change. As per Charles Darwin “It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
The most important function of Judge is adjudication of disputes which not only impacts the parties involved, but also the society at large. Judicial reasoning is said to be both an art and a science to be developed by judges by his knowledge, skills and attitude. The factual positions with the important legal position have to be analyzed before passing any Judgement. In criminal proceedings, the judge has to perform another important function of awarding an appropriate sentence to the guilty and awarding of compensation to the victim. The sentencing has assumed a critical role in criminal justice administration. Similarly, the adjudication of rights of parties and calculation of damages in a civil court is a challenging function of a Judge. With the emergence of Jurisprudence in various dimensions in substantive and procedural laws makes the assignment of a judge in criminal trials, Civil adjudication, family dispute settlements, juvenile justice etc, a very challenging task. The judge cannot afford to be obsolete in Justice Dispensation System.
In addition to above, he has to manage the docket and the Court staff for effective results. He has to maintain cordial relations with the bar along with a message of impartiality and competence. The Improvement of Justice delivery cannot be confined to the Judicial Officers. The stake holders of the legal system have to be developed for working towards a better legal system. The effective administration of justice is based on the competent Lawyers, Government pleaders, Ministerial staff of courts, Prosecution Officers, Members of Juvenile Justice Boards, Mediators etc. It has now become essential that these stake holders are trained to have positive synergic development of legal system for fulfillment of constitutional goal.
They need to be trained at the one centre like the National training Centres for Judiciary so as to implement better coordination amongst all the functionaries. The 13th Finance Commission has recommended for judicial reforms under which, funds have been allocated for enhancing quality of adjudication through training programmes and also for infrastructural improvements. The recommendation includes the development of judicial academies/institutes. Apart from this, allocations for enhancing support to Lokadalats, promoting Alternative Dispute Resolution, training for Public Prosecutors, creation of posts of Court Managers in every judicial district etc. have also been carried out. Five years period is slightly short to improve the long drawn maladies which have emerged out during last several decades. It may therefore be suggested that under the 14th Finance Commission also, all the existing measures for improvement must be extended.
Emphasis is laid on improving quality of justice and also sensitizing the judicial officers towards speedy justice delivery and marginalised section of the society. In imparting training, emphasis is upon the attitudinal change particularly for women, children, weaker section and senior citizens etc. Henceforth it can be seen that not only has the system of dispensation of justice by judges become complex, but also the fact that there are other administrative and departmental work to be done by them may be under the tribunals set up or under any other scheme set forth by the government. Post liberalisation period, the challenges for the judges have increased on a huge rate with respect to daily working, affairs and management. Some of these have been analysed critically in this paper presentation.
?
Review of Literature
The said assignment would critically analyse the impact of economic and political liberalisation and the approach of the judiciary towards it. Analysing the economic part of it first, it would be prudent to mention certain backgrounds which existed before the Courts to analyse the scheme of Economic Liberalisation. The reform process in India had been initiated with the aim of accelerating the pace of economic growth and eradication of poverty.
Since independence, India had followed the mixed economy framework by combining the advantages of the market economic system with those of the planned economic system. India’s economic reforms began slowly in the 1980s, and then accelerated under the pressure of an external crisis at the beginning of the 1990s. But over the years, the economic policy enacted in 1991 resulted in the establishment of a variety of rules and laws which were aimed at controlling and regulating the economy and instead ended up hampering the process of growth and development.
From reading this assignment one can get general understanding that how the governmental policies affect the citizens of the country that is whether the policies bring about changes in the interest of the country as a whole or whether there is infringement of people’s rights and only a certain section of the population benefit from these policies. It also examines that whether the exercise of power by the government in view of these reforms does not an unreasonable restriction on the rights and freedom of others.
The process of economic liberalization in India began in the year 1991 with the objective of introducing the new neo-liberal policies including opening of international trade and investment, deregulation, initiation of privatization, tax reforms, and inflation-controlling measures but over the years the overall direction of liberalization has since remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party, although no party has yet tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies.
The aim of the economic reforms and the policies should be to increase the Gross Domestic Product and as well as ensure that there is equal distribution of national income among the population of the country. Unequal distribution leads to a development of disparities among the different sections of the society, thus resulting in creation of a feeling of inferiority among some people. Citizens would start believing that the rights granted to them by the Constitution of the country are being denied to them and there is favourable behaviour noticeable among the policy makers of the nation.
However there are serious questions about the credibility of these reforms since people have alleged that these reforms, instead of harbouring collective good, favour the higher strata of the society only, thus resulting in denial of rights and advantages of such provisions to others. There are also grave concerns as to till what extent the courts have the power to adjudicate the economic matters coming in the courts regarding the policies adopted by the government for the betterment of the economy.
The economy of a country must include an interpretation of public good which is based on the conception of justice. It should guide the reflections of the citizen when he considers questions of economic and social policy. An economic system is not only an institutional device for satisfying existing wants and needs but a way of creating and fashioning wants in the future. This idea was put forth by economists such as Marshall and Marx.
The reforms of 1991-1993 were not just about macroeconomic stabilization. It was about taking the first step towards freeing India from its old isolationism. For the first time in a millennium, India had the courage to face the real world—to compete in global export markets, to attract foreign investment, and to allow the messy hustle-bustle of free markets. Even more importantly, it opened itself intellectually and culturally to the outside world—a precondition for economic prosperity as well as a socio-cultural renaissance.
After the adoption of the new economic policy in 1991, there were problems faced by the importers in the country mainly due to the Liberalization of trade and foreign investment – the ‘globalization’ aspect of India’s reforms –has not been sufficient to promote widespread competitiveness, nor to overcome or rectify the poor state of India’s infrastructure. Thus the economic reform agenda in India remained lengthy as well as complicated.
• Response by the Indian Judiciary
It is interesting to note the rather conservative approach of the Supreme Court of India while interpreting the economic policy of the Government of India. The most celebrated case in this context is Balco Employees Union vs. Union of India and others ; the relevant extract is quoted hereafter: “47. Process of disinvestment is a policy decision involving complex economic factors. The Courts have consistently refrained from interfering with economic decisions as it has been recognised that economic expediencies lack adjudicative disposition and unless the economic decision, based on economic expediencies, is demonstrated to be so violative of constitutional or legal limits on power or so abhorrent to reason, that the Courts would decline to interfere. In matters relating to economic issues, the Government has, while taking a decision, right to “trial and error” as long as both trial and error are bona fide and within limits of authority. There is no case made out by the petitioner that the decision to disinvest in BALCO is in any way capricious, arbitrary, illegal or uninformed.
From its nascent stage, the apex court in India has struggled with the issue of striking equilibrium between economic and social reform programmes on the one hand and establishing the credibility of India by fostering respect for rule of law, on the other.
Further, the judicial reforms initiated to enhance administration, including the introduction of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987, the constitution of Lok Adalats to amicably settle and compromise the disputes pending in the courts, the providing of free and competent legal aid to the poor and weaker sections of the society in consonance with Article 39A of the Constitution, the establishment of specialized tribunals, both administrative and internal (for instance Administrative Tribunals and the Armed Forces Tribunal) as well as tribunals dealing with the disputes arising out of or associated with economic activities such as Competition Appellate Tribunal, Securities Appellate Tribunal etc. have shown a great impact on the Indian society with reference to their working.
?
Discussion of the Main Topic
The vitality of law as a living organism is primarily dependent on the judge’s ability to pour life into it when the circumstances so demand by making new inroads into the law. Undoubtedly, no other Constitution can be found envisaging such a detailed cluster of provisions regarding a country’s highest judicial organ, as the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court of India is one of the most potent judicial organs in the world today, and it plays a fundamental role in determining constitutional jurisprudence in India.
In the early phases of post-independence, the Supreme Court grappled with the problem of striking an equilibrium between programmes of economic and social reform (for example, the land reform and land redistribution policy during the late 1950?s and 1960?s) on one hand and instituting the credibility of the Indian State in terms of strengthening the rule of law and respecting the rights vested under the laws that preceded independence, and the very Constitution itself, on the other. However, the gradual movement towards judicial activism can be discerned from the 1970’s. In numerous constitutional decisions delivered by the Supreme Court, one of the most important among them being the Kesavananda Bharathi Case, the Court legitimated its interpretative method on the extent of parliament’s amending power under Article 368 of the Indian constitution, by referring to the interests of the people of India.
Expansion of judicial authority was witnessed in the post emergency phase, which saw the growth of the phenomenon of Public Interest Litigation (PIL), wherein the court reinterpreted the provisions of the fundamental rights liberally, in order to maximize the rights of the people, especially those of the disadvantaged sections of the society. The access to courts was facilitated by relaxing the technical rules of locus standi, along with other procedural and institutional innovations. The Court has been vigilant and pro-active in a plethora of cases, thereby adequately ensuring dynamism and vibrancy in the Indian Constitution.
Justice Krishna Iyer in the Fertilizer Corporation Kamgar Union Case enumerated certain reasons for the liberalization of the rule of locus standi, namely that the exercise of state power to eradicate corruption may result in unrelated interference with individuals? rights and social justice which warrants liberal judicial review of administrative action and that the restrictive rules of standing are antithesis to a healthy system of administrative action and activism is essential for participative public justice.
Public Interest Litigation has therefore greatly widened the scope of access to justice as any public minded citizen is now given the opportunity to move the court in the interest of the general public. The Courts have given decisions in cases pertaining to different kinds of entitlements and protections, such as the availability of food, access to clean air, safe working conditions, political representation, affirmative action, anti-discrimination measures and the regulation of prison conditions among others .
The seeds of the concept of Public Interest Litigation in India were initially sown by Krishna Iyer J. in 1976, in Mumbai Kamgar Sabha v. Abdul Bhai Akhil Bharatiya Shoshit Karmachari Sangh (Railway) v. Union of India, saw an unregistered association of workers being permitted to institute a writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution for the redressal of their common grievances. Later, the idea of PIL flourished in S.P. Gupta and Ors. v. Union of India .

Judicial Activism in India can be examined with reference to the review power of the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the Constitution, particularly in areas pertaining to public interest litigation. Through judicial activism, Supreme Court has played a pioneering role in the formulation of several principles like the Principle of Absolute Liability in Oleum Gas Leak Case, Public Trust Doctrine in Kamalnath Case etc. Furthermore, a host of guidelines were also issued by the Court in diverse cases of PIL like the Ratlam Municipality Case, Taj Trapezium Case, Ganga Pollution Case etc.
?
Conclusion
The Indian judiciary has sustained tremendous changes over the years and is still in the process of development in order to effectively administer justice in consonance with the government’s general policy. In addition to the setting up of courts and the enactment of legislation, electronic services have facilitated litigation process in the courts in an unprecedented manner resulting in faster dispensation of justice and case resolution, despite the heavy workload.
Amongst the most remarkable developments witnessed by the judiciary over the past few years is the diversity in cases adjudicated. Specialized courts and special committees have been instituted to handle cases with distinctive features. There has also been an increasing interest in regulating the legal profession, in what seems to be a serious move towards advancing the profession, taking into account the importance of this vital sector and its influential role in the judicial system. Thus, after the period of liberalization the courts have developed their way through by a series of judgments as shown above and also keeping in mind the increasing interests of the population of the country and the policy of social welfare and liberalization. After all these situations and conditions adverse to working, the judiciary is providing an efficient mechanism in rendering justice. Hence, the job of the judiciary and the judges has changed considerably and none of them have succumbed to this change rather the spirit of moving with it has been induced by the law and apex court itself.
In the end, as a conclusive note it is all of us who bring about change in society and thus unless our mental barriers towards reform are broken, all attempts for external remedies are bound to fail. We must remember what Gandhiji said:
“If you want to change anything, you be the change.”
Bibliography

Abstract—Computer Vision and Machine Learning happen to be one of the hot topics of several domains

Etudes

Abstract—Computer Vision and Machine Learning happen to be one of the hot topics of several domains. It is not only restricted to the Computer Science industry. The fashion industry is one such domain that has employed assorted algorithms to attend to the needs of everything from the creation of designs to user suggestions regarding the kind of apparels that would suit their needs. Our focus delves into the benefits which such algorithms add to the work of a couturier. The vitality of this application deals with the broad perspective of convenience with the help of technology. Which in layman terms means, that this application would help designers to gather fashion pieces of similar concepts with convenience and without much human interference. This paper sheds some light on the several generative algorithms that can be employed in this industry. Index Terms—computer vision, machine learning, fashion, GANs, StackGANs, generative images, recommendation A lot has been said about the nature and use of technology in areas where automation could not have been imagined. Most of such domains started out with manual work synthesizing into a solid product. Fashion and apparel happened to be one such discipline in which sketches made by hand have commenced the creation of a fashion piece. The basis of automation in the sphere of Machine Learning lies in modeling real-world entities and that is exactly what formed the foundation of research in the a? la mode business. Fashion is much more than its pieces and a prevailing style. It encaptures the manifestation of cultural ideas of various societies of the world into a few strands of Haute couture. In such an area, automation can act as an aid to applications which are closely associated with this trend-setting domain. Focusing on the generative algorithms that provide an insight into a commercial form of application in the apparel business, we have the following topics in concern: • Fashion Dataset • Fashion Synthesis and Structural Coherence • StackGANs • Visually-aware Recommendation • AI in the Commercial Fashion Industry • Style Generation To commence our debate on core ML implementations, we must mention the dire need of a good dataset. An adequate dataset not only enhances the result but also provides an effective way to train and test a particular model, providing a platform for validation. The following are some of the several datasets that allow us to proceed with the above goal: • Fashion MNSIT: This dataset consists of 60,000 training images and 10,000 testing images. The dimensions are 28×28 and each image is associated with a label from 10 classes. The quality is low and this dataset consists of only grayscale images. This collection is a twist on the original MNIST dataset which consists of images of handwritten numbers. 1 • Fashion-Gen: This collection comprises of 293,008 high definition training images and clothes and accessories accompanied by detailed design descriptions 2. The testing data is around 32,528 images. They are full HD images, photographed in several angles and belonging to one of 48 categories. This dataset was created for the sole purpose of finding an appropriate solution for text to image translation. There is also some metadata provided with each item, which talks about recommended matched items, the fashion season, designer and the brand. • DeepFashion: A large-scale clothes dataset with comprehensive annotations. It contains over 800,000 images, which are richly annotated with massive attributes, clothing landmarks, and correspondence of images taken under different scenarios including store, street snapshot, and consumer. 3 • CelebA: This is a large scale face attributes dataset consisting of 200K celebrity images each with 40 attribute annotations. The focus is on the poses and background clutter. It finds its use in attribute recognition, face detection, and landmark localization. 4 A. Fashion Synthesis and Structural Coherence Structural coherence is basically an effort to focus on the build of the fashion croquis and how different kinds of apparels can be effectively mapped onto the croquis. The approach utilized in this paper initially deals with generative adversarial networks. This appeal facilitates a method in which the generation of new apparels takes place, given a certain language description. An input image is provided, which contains a fashion figure with a particular style of apparels on and associated with that is a language annotation that simply describes that desired image- a style note. The vanilla GANs seem to not deliver up to the mark and hence global coherence is compromised and so is the quality of the image. Hence, we bank on a two-stage GAN architecture which provides an optimal solution via decompartmentalization of stages. There are three main challenges that act as an obstacle for such an approach: • Producing an efficient and adequate image for the language description chosen • Retention of the real image provided as input, in a manner wherein the pose of the croquis is maintained • When a style is chosen, the build of the croquis should not misalign with the desired style Optimal solution: An input is provided along with a sentence describing the desired output, the proposed model initially synthesizes a segmentation map using a generator at the end of the first stage. Utilizing another GAN, a new image is rendered using the segmentation map from the previous stage. This is the two-stage GAN approach, known as the FashionGAN in this case. Given an original wearers input photo (left) and different textual descriptions (second column), our model generates new outfits onto the photograph (right three columns) while preserving the pose and body shape of the wearer 5 B. StackGANs The two main challenges faced by the modern techniques of text to image synthesis are the generation of high-quality images from text descriptions and for each generated image to contain the necessary details and vivid object parts. This is where Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGANs) step in to solve the above challenges. 1) Brief Working: In a nutshell, StackGANs render photorealistic images of a 256×256 size which is conditioned on the given text descriptions. The approach opted for is simply breaking down a bigger problem into more solvable subproblems. In this case that would mean, rendering high-quality images with intricate details is broken down into two separate stages . In brief, we have Stage-1 GAN, which focuses on sketching out a low resolution image which contains just the shape and certain primitive colours. Stage-1 GAN delivers the barebones of the image with less structure and details. The yielded image is taken as input for the Stage-2 GAN. This stage facilitates the addition of details that were excluded in Stage-1 and works on the refinement of the generated image. The output of the Stage-2 GAN is an image which does not compromise on the quality and enhancement of features. While StackGAN manages to solve the above issue, there is also another problem at hand. This stumbling block deals with improving the diversity of the synthesized images, which is solved by introducing a Conditioning Augmentation Technique. 2) Conditioning Augmentation Technique: The text description t is passed as input into an encoder to yield an embedded text ?t which in turn is used as input to the stage-1 generator G0 . But there is a difficulty that arises since, the requirement for the space for this process is a high dimensional one. Which isnt too convenient as there is a limitation on the amount of data. Hence, the use of conditional augmentation serves its purpose here. It produces more conditioning variables in a vectorised form c?. For upsampling and downsampling of the latent variables c?, we use Gaussian distribution to represent real-valued random variables whose distributions are not known. Which is N (µ(?t ), ?(?t )) where µ(?t ) is the mean and ?(?t ) is the covariance matrix, functions of the embedded text ?t . The main advantage of conditional augmentation technique is the fact that it yields more text-image pairs that increases the durability. Overfitting is another challenge that this technique needs to tackle. To make the approach much more smooth, a regularization process must be employed. Here, that is offered by the Kullback-Leibler divergence which is applied between the Gaussian distribution and the conditioning Gaussian distribution. This introduces randomness. The randomness encourages the translation of text to image as the same text might relate to images of diverse poses and appearance.6 The purpose of a recommender system is to provide personalized suggestions to users, based on their history and inferring their preferences and taste. There were certain challenges associated with this traditional system – a long list of items, cold start, evolving fashion. To deal with these challenges, recently there have been efforts to come up with recommender systems that are ‘visually aware’. This model can be used for both personalized recommendation and design. Personalized recommendation is achieved by using a visually aware recommender based on Siamese CNNs; generation is achieved by using a Generative Adversarial Net to synthesize new clothing items in the user’s personal style. (Icons made by Madebyoliver, Roundicons and Freepik from www.flaticon.com) 7 Main ideas: • Recommender Systems: Matrix Factorization (MF) methods relate users and items. Point-wise and pairwise methods have recently adapted MF. BPR with MF as the underlying predictor has been extended to incorporate visual frameworks and is hence, the framework they build on. • Visually-aware Recommender Systems: The users’ rating dimensions are modeled as visual signals. Extension of BPR-MF to incorporate visual dimensions; showing that better performance can be obtained by using ‘end-to-end’ learning approach. • Fashion and Clothing style: Categorizing images belonging to a particular style and assessing items for compatibility. • Siamese Networks and Comparative Image Models: This type of architecture has been applied to discriminative tasks (face verification), as well as, comparative tasks (modeling preference judgements between images). • Image Generation and GANs: The generated images are trained to look ‘realistic’. These systems can be conditioned on additional inputs to achieve certain output characteristics. They follow an approach based on activation maximization to generate images that best suit a user’s taste. D. AI in the Commercial Fashion Industry The fashion industry is being revolutionized by the advent of ML and AI. We found some interesting AI ventures in this field that have been huge successes and some that are still in their preliminary stages but have the potential to do excellently. 1) Alibaba’s FashionAI: The ability to build complete looks from the clothes in the store and the availability of an app to work on these styles on the go is a very alluring feature for the tech-driven audience. The highly specific data that FashionAIs intelligent locks provide can help the e-tailer track fine-tuned customer preference data, such as which products customers pick up and look at the most.8 Intelligent Garment Tags: Products in the FashionAI store have special tracking tags featuring radio-frequency identification (RFID), gyro-sensors, and low-energy Bluetooth chips. This technology allows each lock on the garment to carry specialized information about the item its attached to, such as its color and size. Smart Mirrors: These devices have touch screens that use information relayed by the intelligent locks on each product to automatically display information for the items customers are interacting with. They can also suggest other apparel to complement the items customers are picking up, help shoppers find where products are located, add garments to a virtual shopping cart. Omnichannel Integration: Alibaba intends to add a new Virtual Wardrobe feature to its Mobile Taobao app. This would allow customers to view the clothes they tried on in the store along with recommendations from other merchants on Alibaba’s shopping sites for more items that would complement those looks. 2) Amazon’s AI Fashion Designer and Echo Look: A group of Amazon researchers based in Israel developed machine learning that, by analyzing just a few labels attached to images can deduce whether a particular look can be considered stylish. The software could possibly provide fashion feedback or recommendations for adjustments. An Amazon team at Lab126 which is a research center based in San Francisco has developed an algorithm that learns about a particular style of fashion from images and can then generate new items in similar styles from scratch – basically, a simple AI fashion designer. It makes use of GANs.9 Amazons Echo Look camera analyzes your clothing style and makes fashionable recommendations through machine learning. The devices marquee feature is Style Check, which will review photos of two different outfits to provide a second opinion.10 E. Style Generation This paper11, talks about applying artificial intelligence to automatically generate fashion style images. Given a basic clothing image and a fashion style image (any kind of design print), generating a clothing image with the certain style in real time with a neural fashion style generator. To achieve this, they propose an end-to-end feed-forward neural network which consists of a fashion style generator and a discriminator. The combined global and patch based style and content losses calculated by the discriminator alternatively, backpropagate the generator network and optimize it. The global optimization stage preserves the clothing structure and design while the local optimization stage preserves the detailed style pattern. Fashion style generator framework overview. The input X consists of a set of clothing patches X(1) and full clothing images X(2). The system consists of two components: an image transformation network G served as fashion style generator, and a discriminator network D calculates both global and patch based content and style losses. G is a convolutional encoder decoder network parameterized by weights ?. Six generated shirts with different styles by our method are shown as examples. (We highly recommend to zoom in all the figures with color version for more details.) Existing neural style transfer currently has two approaches: global and patch. Global (full image) based methods preserve the global structure of content images, however, the detailed structure of the style images are not well blended. Patch based approaches such as deep Markovian models capture the statistics of local patches and assemble them to high-resolution images. There is high detail preservation, however, additional guidance is needed to reproduce the global structure. To combat these challenges, they decided to go with an end-to-end feed-forward neural network of fashion style generation that combines the benefits of global and path based methods. Synthetic fashion style images by 5 compared methods NeuralST, MRFCNN, FeedS, MGAN and Ours. The fist left column shows the input style images “wave” and “bear”. The second left column shows four input content images. For MGAN and Ours, we enlarge the regions in red frames to show more details.11 When comparing feed-forward based methods (FeedS, MGAN and this paper’s approach), we note that MGAN and this approach better preserve the detailed textures in the style images, compared with global based FeedS. In the first row of MGAN, the areas in the red frames are not well synthesized. In this paper’s method, these areas are better blended with style patterns. It shows the effectiveness of considering both global and local characteristics in their method. NeuralST and MRFCNN are not feed-forward based networks. Generally, besides the speed, they have similar observations. In MRFCNN, although the generated images preserve the textures, they may lose the original global structures. NeuralST and MRFCNN are computationally expensive since each step of the optimization requires forward and backward passes through the pretrained network. With the feed-forward network, since they do need to do the backpropagation in the test stage, the test speed is hundreds of times faster. In our paper, we discuss various applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence in the fashion industry. We observe that research is state-of-the-art and there is potential to revolutionize the industry with these technologies. An application of these approaches would be to produce a single tool or framework which would be a game-changer for designers and artists. ML in fashion pushes the creative bounds as it comes up with combinations of designs that the human mind would traditionally not think of. Commercialization of these technologies and the development of a polished product is expected. We would like to thank our guide- Ms. Chandravva Hebbi, who has been instrumental in helping us gain clarity with our idea and form a perspicuous understanding of the discussed applications. We would also like to express our gratitude to PES University for giving us the enriching opportunity to research on this topic and write this paper.

Abstarct

Etudes

Abstarct: there is a mutual relationship between human beings,society and environment.among these environment or nature and the society are going there own way independently.and the responsibility or the duty of a man is to protect them.but in this 21st era nature and all other things changing increasingly because of socio-economic development,industrial advancement and so on.these are ruining our environment day by day and creating ecological imbalance.though there are number of laws-international laws have been passed for protection of the nature.legislation like Environment protection Act,1986 and couple of lawshave been made to stop,make a control way and decrease all types of pollution.these laws are becoming weak because of the unwillingness on the part of the corporation to fulfil with.
Companies and corporation are creating code of conduct where the CSR involves. Corporate social phenomenon which saying that the corporation have always to do the right things further than legal obligations. This concept is depend on not only the public policy but also with the companies.CSR is seen a idea in which corporations willingly put together social and environment concerns into their trade and doing interaction with their stakeholders. This idea is socially accepted by all and socially responsible company indicating doing something more than the law for the nature and human possessions .

But the most important question around in the mind that whether CSR is needed or not ?comply with the law first because a variety of reports and arguments come that shows the corporations are not complying even the minimum legal needs for the welfare of the environment.Moreover,the big question is whether the companies will sacrifice their profits for securing the nature?last but not least, whether the companies are incorporating CSR for social task on for making their business?
Introduction:
because of speedy of science and technological changes and advancements the natural environment such as water,land,plant-trees,animals,mountains,rivers all are effected badly. Different corporate industries development in the sector iof energy of atomic, extreme use of fossil fuel really affected our environment.Edward Goldsmitrh,who is an ecologist-
‘by now it should be clear that the environment is becoming less
capable of sustaining the growing impact of our economic development’

.ENVIROUNMENT PROTECTION AND CSR: Reality

There are some arguments by the corporations saying that they are well known of all things and making their industries eco friendly.but this only the words of mouth.there is no match in the field with their words or promises.all most all of the industries are making their profit degrading their own environment and making pollution in the following way-

a) Use of natural resources by industries, as it destroys nature and affects the natural
environment. Cotton, textile, paper, iron, coal, oil, fodder, plywood, food
processing, etc all need natural products as raw materials. Thus increasing needs of
industries have resulted in over exploitation and stress on natural resources.
b) Residues of industries known as effluents are released in water and land without any
treatment which pollutes the water and land, effecting the aquatic life and
underground water.
c) Fossil fuel used by industries like coal, kerosene, diesel, and atomic energy also
pollutes the air in the form of smoke and radioactive particles.

d) Noise, also a major by-product of industries and industrial products causes noise
pollution.
e) Industrial wastes – particularly hazardous waste and radioactive waste- have also
become a major environment pollution problem.