Glass is a hard brittle substance and is completely transparent. Glass is made of opaque sand and behaves like a solid material.

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There are different types of glass including Soda-lime glass which is one of the most common produced and is used in windowpanes and glass containers such as bottles.

There are two different methods of producing glass that are used in the globe. Firstly, Float glass process, this is when a sheet of glass is made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten metal. This process gives the sheet constant thickness and flat surfaces like how the modern windows are. On the other hand, glass blowing, is the other method of making glasses that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble, with the help of a blowpipe.

Glass has numerous benefits such as saving natural resources, glass recycling also helps in saving energy, it is water proof and does not rust.

On the other hand, glass is a expensive material, it can break easily, melts in high temperature and when is broken the pieces maybe sharp.

The EU is one of the biggest glass producers in the world. Germany produces about 1/5 of the volume of glass and is the largest producer in the European nations. Subsequently, France follows, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom.


Copper is a common reddish metallic element that can simply be pressed into more than one shape and is one of the premier conductors of both heat and electricity. It is one of the chemical elements with symbol cu (from latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29.

Oxide and sulphide ores are extracted to make copper. In this day and age, around 80% of global copper production is extracted from sulphide sources.

In this century, copper is used in different fields and this can be power generation and transmission, manufacturing of electronic products and the production of industrial machinery and telecommunications links used every day in homes and businesses. Copper is a vital component in the motors, wiring, radiators, connectors, brakes, and bearings used in cars and trucks.

Copper is important for a proper health. Nevertheless, higher doses can be harmful. If you drink pure water that contains higher than standard levels of copper, you may experience nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, or diarrhoea. Basically, high intakes of copper can trigger liver and kidney damage and even death.

Basically, copper was important to early humans and sustains to be a material of option for a diversity of domestic, industrial and high-technology applications today.


Teflon is a substance used especially to cover the inner part of cooking pans, that avoids food from sticking to them. It is chemically stable, due to the strength of carbon fluorine bonds and is often deployed in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals.

Dr. Roy Plunkett and his assistant invented teflon by accident. Plunkett created 100 pounds of TFE (tetrafluorethylene) and stored the gas in tiny cylinders. A little further longer, when he opened the valve on one of the pressurised cylinders of TFE that had previously been frozen, nothing came out. They decided to cut the cylinder open in order to investigate further. Consequently, they discovered that the TFE gas inside had polymerised into a waxy white powder which was Teflon resin.
After continuing to run the tests four most essential properties of this new substance were discovered and that it was non-corrosive, it had high melting point, it was extremely slippery and it was chemically stable.

Teflon is highly chemical resistant, this is because the Carbon – fluorine bond is very strong. Teflon is formed by fluorine and carbon. It is resistant to other chemicals because it is not water soluble, oil soluble and its bonds are too strong for other chemicals to break.