Humanity is facing problem of obtaining alternative fuels and with this soil infertility closely interrelated. And the most favorable source of energy is bio fuel, for which the technical crops are grown; it means agricultural land removed from the sequence which gives reason for rise in food prices. There is a vicious circle: increase in manufacture – increase in energy consumption – increase in release of greenhouse gases – use of bio-fuels – removal of turnover of land for applied crops – decrease in yield and hence rise in food prices. Bio fuel is any combustible material which is obtained from the living components of our ecosystem.
The most popular biofuel for cars is ethanol. Bioethanol – the usual ethanol, obtained during the processing and fermentation of crops. The most common use of corn, and sugar cane. But also potatoes, barley, sugar beets – that is, those products that contain a lot of starch or sugar, that promote good fermentation – also go into the course.
There are different ways of obtaining bio-fuels but the main way of obtaining biodiesel fuel “Biodiesel” is the transesterification of vegetable oils below alcohols into monoalkylesters, with the passage of the reaction of the exchange of structural elements of natural triglycerides to the fragments of lower alcohols C1-C5.
At the same time, a number of new technological factors have been identified that determine the ecological compatibility and efficiency of the Biodiesel synthesis. Given the amphoteric character of the lower alcohols, this is the presence of the traditional basic (KOH, NaOH), or acid (H2SO4) catalysis. As a catalyst, oxides of zirconium and titanium, as well as alkali metal salts on an Al2O3 basis, were also studied.
A new type of reactor is proposed, which accelerates the esterification stage 5-6 times. At the same time, energy expenditure of biodiesel synthesis is reduced by 25%. The influence of the occurrence of cavitations on the speed of the biodiesel synthesis process was investigated. The essence of the technology is that the synthesis of the esters is carried out in a cavitation device , and the plant for the production of biofuel is included in the scheme of the standard process line: a vegetable oil mixer with alcohols and a catalyst, an ester synthesis reactor through transesterification, a heater and a distributor of esterification products. The reactor is made in the form of a reservoir and a pipe equipped with an accelerating turn at the inlet, which determined the flow of a fluid, and at the outlet, a narrowed section with a vibrating plate.
The use of such a reactor simplifies the technology of the esterification process, escalates the synthesis of ether, reduces capital costs, as well as the energy costs of heating and synthesis.