Literature review on using new technology for developing trainingKhaled Allanqawi
The High Institute for Energy
The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait
The development of information technology constantly led to the development of various fields, including the field of training. Training is no longer limited to being held in a specific place and the trainer explains only to the trainees, but this is developed by technology. The aim of this paper is to show all the latest techniques in the field of training, which positively affects the training process.this reviw paper primarily focuses on new technology for training and its research trend between 2000 and 2018; Paper discussed a review of 22 previous literatures from different journals in the same subject. The findings of this paper showed that the use of modern techniques leads to the development of training, which is reflected positively on the trainee, in addition to the paper mentioned the most important techniques that can be used in training.
This study can be useful to those responsible for training in the development of the training process, which is reflected positively on the trainees.
Training, Computer Based Training (CBT), Web Based Training (WBT), virtual training (VT)
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There is a rapid development in technology; this development of technology has become one of the main resources that can be used in various fields, including the field of training to improve the training process. There are many technology in the field of training as following: Computer Based Training (CBT) is defined as type of training where trainee have training by special training programs on computer and computer take the trainer role, Web based training (WBT) is simply defined as training delivered over Internet; it is commonly referred as e-learning, online learning and distance learning (Bronner Group, LLC), the use of Web-based training has also reduced the training cost (Syberworks, Inc.), Virtual Training (VT) refers to training done in a virtual or simulated environment, or when the learner and the instructor are in separate locations.
Virtual training definition
Virtual Training refers to training done in a virtual or simulated environment, or when the learner and the instructor are in separate locations. Virtual training and virtual training environments are designed to simulate the traditional classroom or learning experience.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Virtual Learning
Virtual learning is accessible to anyone who has a computer, tablet or Smartphone.
You can take part in an online course from any location where you can get a Wi-Fi signal.
Virtual learning can usually take place at a time that is convenient for the student. There is no longer any need to be in a classroom at a specific time on a specific day.
Because you can learn from the comfort of your own home it means that there is no travel costs involved in virtual learning.
You can study at your own convenience which makes this type of learning preferable for those with young families, those with full time jobs and those who have other responsibilities that require input at specific times or places.
What is a Virtual Learning Environment?
A virtual learning environment is an online system that allows education materials to be transmitted through the internet to transfer knowledge from organization to employee, or teacher to student.
Examples of virtual learning environments:
Virtual learning environment examples include the following and more, all of which can be accessed via an online or computer-based system:
Distance Learning Degree Programs
Professional Certification Courses
Video or Audio Lectures
Advantages of a Virtual Learning Environment
Easy Tracking and Assessment
With your virtual learning environment software, it’s easy to tell which employees have completed the activities. Built-in assessments like quizzes can help you ensure they’re absorbing the material.
Every employee has access to the same material, no matter when he or she gets hired. Your message is consistent through the years; when you make a change in company policy that can be updated in your learning system and all employees have access to it.
With a virtual learning environment, receive thorough training immediately.
With an investment in virtual learning platforms, you’re paying someone to develop curriculum once, which can then be used over and over again. Compare this to the expense of hosting workshops every time you hire new people or make changes in your business: paying speakers and instructors, arranging venues and travel, and losing productivity when employees are out of the office.
Employees can choose where and when they complete the training. They can revisit sections that were unclear, or review the entire curriculum from time to time. It’s also flexible for you since you can add or change material at any time.
Virtual Instructor-Led Training (VILT)
Virtual instructor-led training (VILT) refers to training that is delivered in a virtual or simulated environment, or when instructor and learner are in separate locations.
Benefits of choosing vILT for corporate learning:
Train anyone, anywhere with a human element
Trackable learner performance
(Designing Digitally Inc., 2015) states that as learning and development professionals, it is not enough to design a training course and deliver it. But what is important is to translate training needs into behavioral changes, and this is what is delivered through the use of Web-based training.
(Vogel-Walcutt, Fiorella, & Malone, 2013) The effects of training can be enhanced through adequate instructions adapted to the pre-training, during-training and post-training phase.
(DeChurch & Mesmer-Magnus, 2010) (Delise et al., 2010) showed an effect of team training on cognitive outcomes which was larger compared to that of team building.
(Chen et al., 2007), self-efficacy is one of the critical factors influencing employee training effectiveness.
(Tharenou et al. ,2007) in commenting on the correlation between training and organizational-level outcomes, emphasize how individual outcomes are transformed into organizational ones, hoping that individual strategies can be combined with organizational ones in the workplace to achieve the corporate goals.
(Eom et al., 2006) observed that the more interaction between instructors and learners, the higher the user satisfaction. They also found that a knowledgeable teacher who is capable of facilitating learning has significantly positive influences on students’ satisfaction.
(Marks et al., 2005) emphasized the importance of the interaction between instructors and learners. The instructor, who should be an enthusiastic participatory leader, can facilitate the learners’ involvement by assembling interesting issues for discussion, stimulating the students’ critical thinking ability, and encouraging them to ask questions.
(Kraiger et al., 2004) mention that one of the reasons training is frequently criticized is that what is learned cannot be applied to work.
Salas et al. (2003) highlight the importance of assessing the trainees’ perception of relevance and value of training.
(Michel Armstrong, 2001), Training is systematic development of the knowledge, Skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.
(Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2000) Team training should include the knowledge, skills and attitudes relevant for the trained task.
Computer Based Training (CBT)
(Likewise, Lim et al., 2007) found that the higher the trainee’s computer self efficacy regarding online training, the higher their learning performance. Evidently, computer self-efficacy is important in the e-training environment.
(Strother, 2002) Computer-based training can provide a number of advantages such as time and place convenience for students and instructors, standardized delivery, self-paced learning, economies of scale in terms of classrooms and instructors, automated feedback to students and instructors, and a variety of available content.
(Benbunan-Fich, 2002), IT can assist an instructor in extending availability beyond class time and office hours, establish links between classmates, and accomplishing administrative activities.
(Leidner and Jarvenpaa, 2001), There is a potential for computer-based teaching methods to improve classroom learning that remains untapped by the inability to use them effectively.
(McGray, 2000) demonstrated the potential of IT to enable an instructor to be more efficient and effective in broadening and deepening the learning process for business students in MIS.
Web based training (WBT)
(SMA, 2014) Web-based training can take various forms such as simulation game-based training, story-based approach, webinars and many more. Such trainings can opt for a synchronous mode or asynchronous mode of learning.
Long et al. (2008) claimed that trainees’ motivation to learn was linked to their intentions regarding the amount of attention effort they intend to expend during the course. When the employees have high motivation to learn, they will exhibit greater interest in the e-training courses, and therefore, experience higher satisfaction.
(Hashim Nordin, 2007) that investigates the factors contributing to continuance intention and user satisfaction in e-training has found that information quality and system quality were important factors leading to increase in usage and user satisfaction of e-learning in workplace. Higher level of satisfaction was also found to increase the intention to continue use.
(Almutairi & Subramanian, 2005), Slow response from the e-learning system will create frustration and boredom among users and leads to low satisfaction.
(Strother ,2002) states that although Web-based training and other e-learning modes are cost-effective compared to traditional classroom training, however, large number of firms have spent more on developing infrastructure but have not received desired economic advantages.
(Burke et al., 1998; Chiu & Wang, 2000; Jeng, Huang, & Kuo, 2005), navigation aids may provide a structure that promotes more explanatory interaction for learners under learner control conditions.
(Lee, 2004), Documents are a common source of knowledge in organizations, which partially provide knowledge content based on entries. Navigating through online documents has become an increasingly common task in human – computer interactions.
(Baker, 2004), examined how instructor factors influence training effectiveness. Findings indicated that instructors significantly influence the online learning process, thereby confirming the importance of the instructor for learning effectiveness.
(Willett, 2002), proposed to use online discussions to provide a good substitute for in-class discussion.
(Bardach, 1997; Taylor, 2002), Typical types of e-training are video conferencing and web-based training, These technologies purport to permit delivery of learning which is new, better, cheaper, and faster.
(Kosarzycki et al., 2002),As organizations strive to enhance their competitiveness by constantly promoting continuous learning culture, online training continues to grow in popularity as organizations strive to better meet their immediate and strategic needs for a flexible, well-trained workforce.
(Haggerty, Schneberger, and Carr, 2001), found that online discussions lead to better cognition due to the increase in available time to reflect and respond.
(Veen, Collis, Santema, & Genang, 2001), WBT enables companies and businesses to store training materials at a secure central facility which can be navigated by anyone connected to the Internet or intranet, from anywhere in the world, and at any time.WBT creates a training environment which provides reusability, accessibility, durability, portability, and interoperability of training materials.
(Volery and Lord, 2000) also confirm that instructors’ attitude towards the learners; technological control, and classroom interaction are crucial success factors in online teaching. In brief, the aforementioned studies all reveal that various characteristics of instructors influence learning effectiveness to a certain degree.
(Freedman, 1999; Nielsen, 2000), Use of the Internet involves navigation through the World Wide Web (WWW), an Internet facility that links documents (web pages) remotely and locally in hypertext form.
Virtual training (VT)
(Moskaliuk et al., 2013b), VTEs deliver various possibilities for the enhancement of training, such as replay functions or the swap of perspectives.
(Moskaliuk et al., 2013b), VTE can be used to provide training for complex collaborative tasks, and use of the VTE yields positive results in reactions, learning and behavior.
(Moskaliuk, Bertram, ; Cress, 2013a, 2013b) ,Emergency service personnel such as the police, fire fighters or the army have to be prepared for various operations, and continuous training is essential for their success and security. But training in real situations is very costly and complex, and only a small variety of real scenarios can be included. Virtual training environments (VTEs) are helpful in training for such complex collaborative tasks, especially if training in real situations is not possible.
(Bacon, Windall, and MacKinnon, 2012) ,highlight the need for realistic virtual training, that is, training which simulates the information overload and pressure during an operation, especially when the training is for crisis management.
(Keskitalo et al., 2011),VWs enable students not only to communicate with each other at a distance but also to jointly carry out authentic tasks such as constructing a bridge or building in a virtual place .
(Salas, Milham, ; Bowers, 2003), It remains unclear if virtual training results in the knowledge that is expected of trainees and if the technology used for the training is efficient.
Cameron (2003), used simulation in a hybrid course on networking, and found that it improved conceptual understanding and raised performance.
This research paper focuses on three questions:
What are the latest techniques in training?
What is the Virtual Training and it’s Advantages?
How to benefit from virtual training?
Data Collection Method
To investigate citations, we have considered journals, area of new technology for trainings. For conducting citation analysis, the database was build using Science Citation Index (SCI). The researches in the area of Web-based training were identified from SCI and SJR. Journal ranking was obtained from the database of SJR, and author citation count was analyzed to find the most frequently cited author. Data collected from 22 previous research papers. Research papers during the period from 2000 to 2018.
Applying web based training will enable the organization to train their employees quickly, efficiently and effectively anywhere at any time.
The greatest perk of virtual training is that it overcomes geographical obstacles.
This paper discussed 22 research papers from different journals in the field of using the latest technologies to develop training, which results in the development of trainees.thr paper clarified most technologies that will be useful in the field of training.
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