OLUWASEGUN ADENIYI ADEBIYI
07956004734 | [email protected] ONE ASSIGNMENT THREE
Question1Explain the process involved in the development of an effective team or work group.
There are 5 processes/stages involved in the development of an effective team or work group. These processes are FORMING, STORMING, NORMING, PERFORMING and ADJOURING
Forming Process is the teams’ onboarding stage where team members get inducted and introduced to each other while its mission, objectives and deliverables are spelt out to every team member. This stage is usually characterised by its non-conflict laden task that is used to build commitment towards the teams’ objective and members being very formal and polite while getting to know each other.
Storming Process is characterised by a high level of enthusiasm within the team. In other words, members are eager to table ideas on how deliverables can be met and how the overall objective of the team can be achieved. This often led to conflict as it reveals to members how difference they are from each other. At this stage, communication, public recognition to acknowledge accomplishment, high value placed on diversification of membership needs and regular meetings between member is very important.
Norming Process explains the stage where conflicts are resolved, where team members start recognizing their common interest and how mutually beneficial working together can be. The feeling of “I” transforms to “WE” amongst members.
Performing Process is where team members understand their uniqueness within the team, where they understand their roles and responsibilities as individual member and as a team. Members become self-motivated and productive. This stage highlights the teams’ maturity while focusing on performance and its productivity.
Adjourning stage brings the process to an end and the team becomes disbanded and member are set to go on to other endeavours, having achieved overall objective of the team, this period is usually dishearten because members has grown close to each other.
Question2Referring to the work of R.M. Belbin, examine the roles or skill types he considered essential to effective team or group performance.
Dr Meredith Belbin explained the need to have specific but diversified skill types within a team to ensure its success. This skill types are,
Coordinator looks after procedures, helps clarify team’s intentions and summarizes what everyone wants. Although this team member knows how to utilize people to their full potential, he/she sometimes tends to leave too much work to others.
Implementer is that team member that is disciplined, orderly and task oriented. This member is the team’s organizer. He/she puts plans and ideas into easily executable tasks, can be too practical, conservative and dismissal of innovative ideas when the usefulness of such ideas is not immediately clear.
Shaper tends to be very self-driven, passionate and willful. This quality ensured that things get done and deadlines are met. However, He/she gets very emotional, frustrated and may react angrily to other team members.
Resource Investigator is that team member who is always cheerful, extroverted, enthusiastic, adventurous, open-minded and always looking for ease ways of doing things. He/she a very likeable person and naturally good at developing and maintaining contacts but may become careless and easily distracted.
Plant is the creative thinker of the team who is very innovative and original. A plant usually needs space to fantasize about new and surprising solutions to complex problems. He/she is however not always practical and sometime do not accomplish the expectation of others for him.
Monitor is the analyst of the team who is always very sensible, thoughtful, critical and wants to get to the bottom of things which make him/her sometime impassive and distant to the team.
Teamworker is very helpful, accommodating, focused on creating a pleasant atmosphere and sense of togetherness for the team. Although he/she can be called the most sensitive member of the team, this member usually has difficulty with conflict and may have trouble taking decisions at critical times, thus tries to avoid conflict and confrontations.
Completer Finisher is the perfectionist who pays a lot of attention to details, checking and rechecking tasks done. He/she monitors the quality and safety but can sometimes be overprotective and find it difficult to delegate things to others.
Specialist is usually an advisor who has an immeasurable source of knowledge in his/her field and a usually external to the team.
Question3Identify the differences and similarities between leadership and management.
The concepts are used interchangeably by most because of its similarities some of which are;
They both entail working with people and getting result
They influence the work structure and its environment.
They are concerned with goal achievement with the resource to them
They are concerned about using these resources used effectively and efficiently.
However, these concepts are different in the following ways
Conceptual definition Is the ability to influence, motivate and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success a laid down objective
Is all about directing, controlling, coordinating and harmonizing resources (People) towards achieving a particular objective.
Personality Brilliant and charismatic, often seen as private people wild, innovative thinkers who are comfortable with taking risks. Intelligent, rational but goal focused Conservative problem solvers who like to keep everything under check and balance.
Power through Charisma ; Influence Formal authority ; Position
Organization Leaders have followers Manager have subordinates
Orientation People-oriented Task-oriented
Emphasis Leading people Managing work
Way of solving tasks Takes a wholistic view of issues and devise new, creative solutions while using their personality to excite, motivate, and focus others to solve problems and excel. Generally, uses scientific methods that have been tested and trusted to solve problems. They Create strategies, policies, using teams by empowering people to solicit their views, values, and principles.
Outcomes Achievements Results
Appeal to Heart Head
Openness to risk Risk-taking Risk-averse
Role in decision-making Facilitative Involved
Styles Transformational, Consultative ; Participative Dictatorial, Authoritative, Transactional, Autocratic, Consultative and Democratic
Question4What are the meaning and importance for managers of networking and communication networks?Answer4
I believe the question is referring to how information flows within the organization. Although this flow of information is managed, regulated and structured, that can be
Formal – which is created to describe the hierarchy and reporting system within an organisation at a glance. It is usually depicted by an organisational chart that highlights the vertical pathway flow of information i.e., upward or downward, and horizontally.
Upward Communication being information that flows from subordinates to superiors either to discuss work related problems, seek clarification or giving suggestions for improvement.
Downward Communication is that flows of information from superiors to subordinates basically to give job instructions, explain company rules, policies and procedures and giving feedback regarding job performance.
Horizontal Communication – This type of communication takes place between co-workers in the same department, or in different departments, with different areas of responsibility.
Informal – In this type of network, information does not flow in a direction, they are also not passed on through official channels such as memos, notices or bulletin boards. They are information passed on by co-workers or colleagues when they meet socially.
Question5Explain four variables that affect leadership effectiveness in work situations
The characteristic of the leader: Leadership style is foremostly affected by the leader’s personality. A competitive person is inclined to become a pacesetter, trying to show the team that high-levels of output are possible.
The characteristic of the followers: Every follower doesn’t respond to every leadership styles in the same way. A follower who is timid by nature might be overwhelmed by a coercive or even a pacesetting leader. This person might constantly wonder if his job is in jeopardy or feel he will never be able to measure up to the greatness shown by the pacesetter.
Type of Task: The task to be done depicts the leadership style to be adopted. It doesn’t befit a manager to take on a democratic leadership style on a task that requires affirmative action where he may need to use a coercive style to get things done depending on severity of the infraction or use same style while performing brainstorming and creative tasks which the democratic or affiliative approaches will best work for.
Culture of the organisation: Leadership style is also affected by the way of doing things within the organisation in other words what culture the organisation imbibes to achieve its objective, the collective value, belief system and principles of people within the organisation affects leadership style
Question6Explain why some conflict is preferable to no conflict at all, but too much conflict is a usually a negative outcome for most managers.
Conflict within a group basically refers to some form of friction or discord that arises when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by it or it becomes unacceptable to one or more members of another group. It usually disturbs the harmonious flow process of a group when it ever arises, and this is perceived as bad for business.
Thus, managers then to avoid. This is however not necessarily true in all cases. In fact, it can be argued that some level of conflict can be good for organizations because it encourages open-mindedness and innovative thinking while helping to avoid the tendency of the organisation or group to be stagnated. The key is learning how to manage conflict effectively so that it can serve as a catalyst, rather than a hindrance, to organizational improvement.
Question7Compare the merits of two alternative conflict-handling strategies
The two alternative conflict handling strategies are Mediation and Arbitration
Mediation depicts when parties involved in a conflict resolves their disputes on the own while including a third-party who is neutral to the conflict to aid the process. It is important to note that the third-party otherwise called a mediator will not resolve the dispute but help facilitate a discussion between the persons in conflict with one another in hopes that they will find a common ground to stand on together. While mediation is often the best first choice when resolving an issue of common interest voluntarily especially when both parties need each other, it allows the parties to remain in control of resolving their dispute private to the prying eyes of the public and always ends inn Win/Win situation for both parties involved. However, if this fails the other alternative dispute resolution strategy, Arbitration can be evoked.
In Arbitration, a neutral third party is brought in to resolve the dispute. This neutral party considers all the fact laid down and decides on resolutions that may end the conflict subject to both parties complying with the decision which are most times binding to both parties. Contrasting from mediation, many arbitrations end up with winners and losers. And this makes arbitration is a riskier approach to resolving a conflict.