One of the primary reasons why the Islamic values should be added into nursing ethical conduct is to build up client-medical professionals trust relationship. From Islamic rulings, it is the mankind’s responsibility to fulfil and uphold trust (the amanah). Allah says in the Quran: “Indeed, we offered the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, and they declined to bear it and feared it; but man undertook to bear it. Indeed, he was unjust and ignorant.”33:72 Trusts is a very burdening to the extent that none of those creatures are willing to accept the duty except human. Therefore, human are responsible to run the duty for the sake of others’ wellbeing. For example, in a health care setting, nurses are responsible for passing on the right of their patient, including telling the true statement and holding on their secret in regards to maintain their reliability. Hence, amanah and trust comes along to preserve the trustworthiness between client and nurses.
Besides, to prevent the misconduct of Shariah laws in nursing profession is another factor of adoption of Islamic values in nursing practice. According to Baddarni (2010), there are many health care providers who lack in basic Islamic knowledge which is on Muslim faith and medical ethics based on Islamic law. The knowledge is crucial for every medical professional, especially nurses to understand the principles of Islamic beliefs and actions to achieve better cultural competency and improve patient care. Most incurable patients are helpless and require special care of their physical, mental and spiritual aspects and needs. As the muslims believe that life is a form of test from God, their goal is to live and die in accordance with His will, as revealed in the Quran and shown by the Prophet’s practice.
Apart from that, the reason to implement Islamic value in nursing profession’s practice is to respect client’s sufferings and self-rule. Though most nurses are not willing to talk to patients their families about DNR orders because it might cause legal issues for them (Mogadasian, S., Abdollahzadeh, F., Rahmani, A., Ferguson, C., Pakanzad, F., Pakpour, V., ; Heidarzadeh, H. , 2014), the the DNR orders is not opposing with basic Islamic rules (Sarhill, N., LeGrand, S., Islambouli, R., Davis, MP., ; Walsh, D. , 2001). For instance, in the third case where the nurse told the DNR order for her client, the action is acceptable in Islamic rulings because she cannot stand the agony which her client suffered from. Her client also has the ability to end her pain earlier if she wished to do so. Thus, the Islamic law is actually give beneficence to mankind, as it comes from the One who created them.
The next factor which causes the Islamic value should be part in nursing ethical practice is to provide the best care for the clients by maintaining confidentiality. This is because it shows respect for people whenever the only right information should be delivered to them, and the privileged information of someone should not be shared freely. Imam Mawardi (1981) says about confidentiality that it is those strength of a man through which he can keep from disclosing other’s personal stuff and successfully achieve his goal. With Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency compared to professional medical ethics which only the behaviours of health staff are evaluated but the moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated. When the healthcare providers maintain the confidentiality, it will gain the clients’ confidence. Thus, the treatment and care which had been planned become easier to get cooperation from them.
Moreover, Islamic values should be implemented in nursing ethical conduct to develop a higher standard of ethical principles and practice. According to Gatrad ; A Sheikh (2001):
The objective of the Shari’ah (Islamic law) is to protect five essentials of the person: (1) Maintenance of life (2) Protection of an individual’s freedom of belief. (3) Maintaining the intellect. (4) Preservation of honor and progeny. (5) Protection of property.
For that reason, Islam considers access to health care as a fundamental right of the individual. In medical field, there are times when decision-making options to provide the best care for the client are difficult. Thus sometimes the health care providers need to decide for the client though they have insufficient availability of the knowledge, experience and public unanimity. Meanwhile, the Muslim health care givers develop their conclusion from the legislations of Shariah laws and Islamic medical ethics. The first main principle of Islamic Medicine is the stress on the purity of human life which derives from the Qur’an: “If anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind” 5:32. The verse states that someone who helps to preserve the life of even one person is the guardian of the whole of humanity, for he retains a quality which is requisite to the survival of mankind. Therefore, adopting the Islamic values in nursing ethics is very significant in order to attain a better quality of nursing profession.