FORENSIC EXAMINATION OF SIGNATURES
Partial Fulfilment for Award of the Degree of
Master of Science in Forensic Science
Guided by: Submitted by:
Dr. Himanshu Khajuria Chandrakanta Giri
Professor, AIFS, NOIDA A5901117016
MSc FS, AIFS
AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDA CAMPUS, UTTAR PRADESH
A M I T Y U N I V E R S I T Y
UTTAR PRADESH .
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “FORENSIC EXAMINATION OF SIGNATURES” submitted to Amity institute of forensic science (AIFS), Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India in fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of M.Sc. in forensic science, embodies original work carried out by Mr. Chandrakanta Giri. This work is original and has not been submitted so far in part or full for any other degree or diploma of any other university.
Dr. S.K. Shukla Dr. Himanshu Khajuria
Director and Professor Assistant Professor
AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDA CAMPUS, UTTAR PRADESH
FACULTY GUIDE APPROVAL
I hereby confirm that Mr. Chandrakanta Giri has completed his NTCC Summer Internship under my supervision and to the best of my knowledge this work is not submitted to other University.
Dr. Himanshu Khajuria
AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDA
I would like to express my gratitude to my guide Dr. HIMANSHU KHAJURIA, without whom this work would have not been possible, his guidance and insight throughout the project has immeasurably helped me in completion of this work.
I am also grateful to all the faculties of Amity institute of forensic science for showing faith in me and keeping me constantly motivated and enlightened throughout the coursework.
Finally, I would like to acknowledge my unending support and encouragement that I have received from my parents, I am immensely thankful for the constant faith they showed and the motivation that I get at every step.
Last but not the least, I am grateful for all the blessings and support from everyone who has helped and showed faith in me throughout this.
M. Sc. Forensic Science
AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDA
Comparison of the signatures is based on the high probability that no person writes in the same way, while considering this fact the writing of each person has its own variability. Therefore, a review of the spelling / signature must address interpersonal variability. Some classifications of calligraphy / signature structures vary in a population of potential authors with intra-personal variability. The definition of two signatures of the same person depends on showing that their degree of variability in some experiments is the slope, the cycle, the angle, the baseline and the traits, and so on. In the present study, a challenge is provided to provide an effective method for examining variations in the signatures of the authors themselves.
CLASS CHARACTERISTICS (general characteristics)
The characteristics of handwriting that are reflected in a group of learned individuals are from the child at the beginning of the learning of writing. The style of writing learned by the student is what is elegant at the time and place. Following are the futures covered by the class features:
a) types of movement
b) quality of the line
f) Distance between letters, words and lines
j) Connection and lines between letters
k) dimensions and proportions of the letters
l) image effect
q) writing habits
s) Pressure pen, pen, pen position, pen shading and junctions
t) coordination of the muscles of writing
MOVEMENT: the movement is divided into four groups: finger, wrist, forearm and whole arm. Subgroups occur when two movements are used, e.g. B. a combination of movement of the fingers and forearm.
1) The movement of the finger is one in which the writer uses his fingers only to generate letters. In such writings, there is very little vertical or lateral line. The beats are relatively short. When writing the characters with this movement, the fulcrum changes after a few words or even letters. The typeface is usually angular and the orientation of the base of the typefaces consists of a series of small arcs resulting from the frequent rotation of the fulcrum placed at the base of the palm and the part of the hand resting on the paper that allows very little freedom while writing.
2) The movement of the wrist is one in which the writing is mainly performed by the movement of the wrist, with the fingers used only to grasp the stylus. This spelling is usually very angular and scratchy and the pen is somewhere above the wrist. There is great lateral and vertical freedom in this movement. 3) The movement of the forearm is one in which the fingers and the wrist are rigid and the writing action is performed by the muscles of the forearm. There is great lateral and vertical freedom because the point of rotation is at the elbow. The connection and the strokes are relatively long and the writing goes directly to the page. 4) The entire movement of the arm is a movement in which the whole arm is used to write, the point of rotation is somewhere on the shoulder. The letters are large and there is great lateral and vertical freedom. The characters on the blackboard are examples of the whole arm movement. The meaning of the movement is obvious. Two letters, which are similar in shape and shape, can be very different from the direction in which the stylus moves during manufacture. The writing could be done with the movements of the fingers, the wrists, the forearms, the whole armor, a combination of some of them. The writing by moving the fingers is slow and the size of the letters is small. The rhythm is usually absent. Generally, school children or illiterate people use it. When writing with a movement of the hand, the wrist acts as a fulcrum. The result is a slow and boring writing. The picturesque effect is usually bad. The use of the forearm for writing is common among writers who write at speed. The writing is smooth and symmetrical. The entire arm movement is possible if the arm is not resting on the support. Writing is usually large and sometimes embarrassing. The writings on a wall and on a blackboard are written with a movement of the whole arm. The most expert authors combine movements of fingers, hands and forearms.QUALITY OF THE LINE: the lines written by an expert author are fluid and coherent. The initial finishing and embellishment strokes are natural and smooth. The link bars are consistent and continuous except when the author usually raises the pen to complete or modify the letters. On the other hand, there are frequent pen breaks, pen lifts and hesitations in simulated and redesigned fakes. The lines are particularly effective at the beginning and at the end, the connecting and embroidery sections and the curves of certain letters.
The quality of the line can be bad if the author:
1. weak and ill
2. illiterate or semi-literate
3. I’m not familiar with the script
4. Use a non-normal hand to write.
5. Write in a moving train in an unnatural position.
6. Use of defective pen, paper, ink or media.
It is an expression that illustrates the observable record in the written stroke of the base movement. It is the derivative of a combination of factors such as writing ability, speed and rhythm, freedom of movement, shading or pen position.
SPEED: No one writes at the same speed on this consideration of the writing speed may mean that the writing speed of the identifying element can not be accurately measured by the finished calligraphy, but can be judged by the quality of the strokes, or it can be used in terms board also be interpreted, moderately or quickly.
ABILITY LEVEL: The skill level can be described as an appreciation of beauty as it is written on the hand to produce an individual with high skill, rhythmically fluid, perhaps artistically embellished and, in short, aesthetically pleasing to the eye and individual with little level of skill produces a product that hesitates to run slowly; In general, it is not pleasant to the eye. A person with a low level of skill can not write above this level while a person with a high level of skill writes to a lower level. His skill level becomes one of the important traits or identification.
Rhythm: the rhythm is found in the handwriting of educated people with extensive writing experience. The rhythm is indicated by the flow of writing, by the correct quality of the line and by the punctuation and by the proportional formation of letters and numbers. It is the product of the experience of writing and reading and can not be imitated.
SPACING: is the space that the writer gives between letters / words / lines / etc. It can be thin, too. Medium or inconsistency (combination of more than two) distance.
SLANT: Slant indicates the angle of inclination of the writing or a letter of writing from the base line of that letter. It can be forward and tilted to the right or “backhand” if it can change the lenses to the left to tilt the writing from the beginning of a word to the end of the word, or one from the beginning of the sentence, paragraphs or page if that. it is habitually reproduced, it can in itself identify the traits.
STYLE: style depends mainly on initial training, but is modified according to the individual whims and acceptance of some forms that appeal to the individual. The style can be round. Angular or a mixture of the two. It can be autistic or simple.
ALIGNMENT: this is simply the relationship between the letter in question and the baseline. It is the observance of writing on a baseline performed (printed) or imaginary. The character can be tilted upward, concave or convex downward, or have a pattern of changes for different words, parts of words or signatures. It can follow the baseline or go through the baseline or be uneven from the baseline
CONNECTING STROKES: the connecting lines connect the letters in words. they are also called ligatures. Letters in one word can be merged or separated. Connectors can consist of bows, garlands, angel wires.
DIMENSIONS AND LETTERS: it is a habit in which the combination and comparative dimensions of blocks and lowercase letters are taken into account and are almost constant and fairly constant.
Image effect: the pictorial effect of writing shows the writer’s ability. a clumsy writing indicates a small writing experience. It is common with illiterates or semi-alphabets. The artistic spelling indicates the artistic spirit. Powerful writing can be found in person, who writes incessantly with devotion and is a hard-working writing of people who are sick, old or weak. it is very common in counterfeits simulated or prosecuted. Some people are nervous and show irregularities in their writings.
Schmälzfälschungen that are made by a skilled writer, present greater difficulties of tracking as when tracing. It is difficult to produce a perfect resemblance is a fake simulated because the person to eliminate their writing habits and the habit of writing for the person whose signature is, must produce is to imitate. It is difficult to get it because a person must have a visual reminder of the characteristics of the actual signature. Successful reproduction of similarity or figurative are of equal size. oblique and curved orientation.
Create habits: Writing exam essentially requires a detailed concern and analyzing the different habits of writing movement, pen pressure and shading, pin position, orientation, inclination or slope, distance. Layout, dimensions and proportion, style, line quality, general performance.
TREMORS: Tremors are natural in writing to people who are old, sick, drunk or illiterate, these shocks have their own model in the simulated tremors, forgers risk putting them in jobs and the shapes and sizes of the rickety curves are different , the fraudulent nature of writing can be determined there.
COORDINATION OF MUSCLE IN WRITING: When writing a large number of muscles of the fingers, wrists and arms are involved. The degree of coordination between these muscles varies with different authors. If a stylus is held stationary on a card, there is a delicate balance of forces between the muscles of the fingers and the thumb. The pen rests partly on the last joint of the second finger and partly on the ball of the thumb. The weight of the first finger is at the top of the pen. When a downward run is performed, the Kontraktormuskeln the first and to a certain extent of the second finger come into play. The extensor muscles of the thumb are exercised only to the extent that the pole is held in place. The opposite is the case when a lift is made. The interaction of the muscles between the muscles of the fingers, the wrists and the arm varies according to the author.
• The discriminatory element used to distinguish an individual from one or all groups is called an individual trait. More specifically, the characteristics that are the most peculiar characteristic of a specific writer are indicated as individual characteristics.
• Some letters from staples or sample letters are somewhat difficult to model because they can require complex movements of the pen, which can be easily modified for reasons of personal convenience, so letter does not lose its meaning; Because these changes or changes are sometimes subtle or profound, they lay the groundwork for the individual characteristics of a writer.
• McCarthy stated that the basic axiom of spelling identification lies in the fact that “there are no two manuscripts themselves or another person are identical.” At the same time, he argued that heterogeneity and natural variations are the basics and continued. “There are no other axioms or corollaries, which are involved in the process that causes handwriting identification, since variations can not be controlled in the manuscript, so we call them as natural variations.
Like fingerprints, there are many guesses about calligraphy.
1. Writing is an acquired ability that is a constant motor task, writing is heterogeneous. (A principle)
2. Writing is a voluntary act that follows behaviors learned as habits. (A principle)
3. An author can not improve his maximum writing skills or kill him without effort, practice and / or training over a period of time.
4. Quality in every human effort, and especially in writing, is their best defense against simulation, counterfeiting or counterfeiting.
5. The keys for synchronism against synchronism can be found in the consistency and continuity of the attributes.
6. As features improve, writing between drawings becomes less variable, although some natural variations are unavoidable.
7. Natural variations are the inaccuracy with which the habits (discriminating elements) of the writer are performed on repeated occasions.
8. The range of natural variations varies with the writer’s ability and the allographer (letters) performed.
9. Due to natural variations, there are no two characters of the same material identical by the same person.
10. The variations of natural writing diverge with the author’s conditions and may differ from the nature of the document. When conditions are controlled, there are fewer differences between the designs.
11. Natural variations in writing are unusually rare in synchronous characters with respect to asynchronous characters.
12. Handwriting changes progressively on the writer’s life. The change is greater in the preceding and successive stages of life; however, the nature and extent of change are inherent to the individual.
13. Wrong deterioration depends on individual circumstances. (a maximum)
14. Temporary physical and psychological conditions may cause temporary or temporary changes in writing that will be left with the departure of the condition.
15. Fonts consist of approximate and appealingly designed elements and subtle elements that are less consciously executed and non-intrusive.
16. A written deterioration for any reason affects all its elements.
17. With practice, writing becomes automatic.
18. With automation, writing becomes more skilled.
As already mentioned, natural variations are inevitable and can not be controlled. due to the fact that our brain does not work like a computer. Natural variations are a feature of any ongoing motor activity. The reasons for the occurrence of these variations are the individualized modifications of the basic formations, giving the manuscripts their unmistakable individuality.
Changes in the manuscript may arise due to both internal and external factors, including:
• writing materials
• writing position
• physical disorder
• Emotional disorder
Lack of concentration during the writing phases
• Influence of drinks and drugs.
The natural variations that exist in a single character do not alter their basic properties, but only affect the pictorial effect, size and inclination. It has been noted that when a document is taken and compared under different conditions, there should be some doubt that a person is responsible for writing all the scriptures, as different as they appear. The attitude of the writer towards the document is subject to greater fluctuations and the results can mean a loss of quality and control. Related to this are situations in which a writer is trying to sign a letter for illness if he is forced to bed. In other situations, a person may try to write or sign a document on his knees or on his knee. Writing on moving vehicles of all kinds is considerably numerous or at least claims to be so.
Depending on the vehicle type, the influence of its movement may be small or extreme. If it is extreme, writing can be quite unpredictable. Whatever it is, the effect will be.
Writer: Writing with the pen and pencil have different shades, pen pressure or holding pressure, the position and the quality of the line and therefore the sealing characteristics differ for both, but these differences make a writing style is not of the all useless as an adequate level of comparison with others, but would tend to weaken its value. Recently, various writing tools such as pen, ballpoint pen, fiber tips have been adapted etc., and when writing with various writing tools, variations can also be viewed on the same paper and under the same conditions.
writing position: Normal notation is also influenced by the position in which a person writes as writing or standing or sitting.
The writing plan: The structure of the surface, which we use for our writing, affect the quality of the line, the shape of the letter, size, etc. Sometimes, the surface can be smooth or at other times, have a rough and normal texture character influences accordingly.
Writing under stress: Here are the effects of emotional stress and physical stress can be distinguished. The emotional state is reported and treated under the head of the writer. Physical stress is often described as fatigue, and cases in which documents are written in extreme fatigue are rare.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Handwriting is individualistic and therefore attempts to veil or falsify are not always successful. The present study highlights the same by explaining the various characteristics of manuscripts, especially in counterfeited and disguised documents. This chapter was prepared to understand the various attempts made by researchers to examine the nature of the documents in question, the various characteristics of the disputed documents and their nature of the investigation.
• June (1917) worked on methods of masking the manuscript and on the extent to which individual masking attempts were effective in terms of age and gender. 12 men and 12 women (12 men under 26 and 12 women over 30) were asked to write a verse on an empty sheet of paper, and then asked to rewrite the verse on a second sheet, but their hide calligraphy. The results showed changes in the size of the font, level, quality of the line and shape of the letter. The masked writing is different from the real writing. In terms of age and gender differences, younger women and men have been more successful.
• Brohier (1978) conducted a study reviewing the nature and extent of the responsibilities of the professional document auditor, discussing the verification and comparison of manuscripts with the general characteristics of styles, proportions, letters, numbers and factors in comparison.
Gupta (1979) examined the intrinsic qualities of good signatures that can provide effective protection against counterfeiting. According to his study, a tamper-proof signature would be the easy-to-read font of the full name, in italics in terms of speed, stroke quality, pressure levels and shading. In all the important documents of particularly valuable titles, the signatures were preceded by a certain amount of manuscript and were added without leaving an unacceptable difference between the previous text and the signature
Puri (1980) has investigated the fact that counterfeiting is a two-pronged process that involves overcoming someone else’s writing habits and giving up their acquired habits. Handwriting is an applied science consisting of optics, physiology and psychology. Manuscripts in a fake are drawn slowly as clumsily and tremblingly. They show breaks due to pen pauses, as well as careful links to hide the pen lifts. The re-contact can make the strokes more similar to those of the pens compared to the normal characters.
Kapoor et al. (1985), worked on the form and extent of natural variation in real writings with age. The degree of variation in mature authors and their impact on calligraphy after a period of 10 years has been examined. It was based on a study of fifty people between the ages of 30 and 55. It has been concluded that the range of natural variations, rather than the properties themselves, will gradually change over time. This change justifies the need for contemporary writing compared to handwriting, even if the characteristics of calligraphy are more or less permanent.
Evett and Totty (1985) worked on measurements of the length and height of a total of 2320 real signatures from eight individuals. The signatures for each of the people were written during the normal course of business for a considerable period of time. For five individuals, the data are such that they can be considered in monthly batches, while for the other three in daily batches. A study of variations over time was considered, and in almost all cases the variation between lots is statistically very significant. The results were summarized in graphical form and offered a first provisional principle of variation of the manuscript.
Brocklehurst (1985) examined the digitization of signatures and described the characteristics that allow comparison. Using data reduction techniques is a list of values ??2-7 can be obtained to give a codified description of a signature, which can then be used for authentication. From one to six copies received an adequate database. Thus it was possible to obtain a rejection of 97% of the examples of the writing name that were not true signatures on sleepers, the accepted 90% of the authentic signatures. The system aims to provide support to document examiners in counterfeiting and has limited value for identifying authors.
• Herkt (1986) researched the identification of the signature, 144 subjects were interviewed. A first group of 72 subjects each completed a series of eight real signatures and a series of eight attempts to hide their signature. A second group of 72 subjects each received one of the sets of authentic signatures generated by the first group. The second group was asked to produce two fakes, using the set of true signatures as models. The collected data made habits of obfuscation and counterfeiting methods possible and the most common mistakes in the quality of counterfeiting try to show that it should be described and compared. The results of his study of poor quality line, inconsistency with the lack of rhythm and speed, spring jumps are prominent in the false signatures and the lower skills in coordination, lack of pace is prominent in the masked signatures.
Wilkinson et al. (1991) concluded from the study that the function of verification of the handwritten signature as a two-stage problem of discriminated synthesis (SDF) is treated. The images of valid and casually simulated signatures are collected and binarized using a digital digitizing camera. The performance of this approach is examined with a small number of valid signatures in the training set, and a substantial improvement has been shown if the fakes are included in the sentence. In particular, it proved that the same error rate for the SDF-classifier with a counterfeit average ~ 4% various disciplines nine. The effects of image preprocessing on false acceptance and true reject rates are examined. The use of alternatives to counterfeit signatures in the training matrix has been examined. Finally, it is shown that the performance of SDF is reduced when the counterfeit products tested are generated with a previous knowledge of the destination signature.
• Murshed et al. (1995) worked on an off-line signature verification system to eliminate random counterfeiting. Compared to the systems previously proposed, their system was trained only with real signatures. This eliminates many of the problems that exist in current systems. The proposed system has been evaluated with a database of 200 signatures.
• McClary (1997) worked on handwriting samples from 200 students at the University of South Carolina, who in one study provided handwriting samples to examine the basic alignment in signatures and handwritten sentences. The study was developed to measure the consistency with which adult authors align letters, words, signatures and sentences to real and imaginary baselines. Each participant received two white leaves, one lined and the other unlined. Participants were instructed to copy sentences in italics and, if possible, to provide their signatures. There were 88 women and 112 male participants between the ages of 18 and 63 with a mean age of 20 years. Most of the sample pool has proven consistent in the basic alignment with the placement of letters, words and signatures on aligned and non-aligned forms. However, the signatures on both forms were more consistent than the words and letters used in this study. Of the 129 signatures provided, only 2 or 1.5% showed serious inconsistencies between aligned and non-aligned samples. Twenty-nine participants showed a significant overall inclination in their unaligned signatures. The alignment of disordered whole sentences was widely different in this group. Their study confirmed that basic alignment is a habit of repetitive writing and a reliable factor in handwritten comparisons for identification or elimination purposes.
Srihari et al. (2000) studied “Individuality of Handwriting” in the Department of Computer and Engineering, Center of Excellence in Architecture and Recognition of the Document, University of Buffalo, State University of New York, USA. His study will objectively refer to the hypothesis that handwriting is individual. Handwriting samples were obtained from 1,500 individuals, representative of the US population in terms of gender, age, ethnic groups, etc. The analysis of differences in spelling was performed by computer algorithms to extract resources from scanned handwriting images. The characteristic attributes of the manuscript were obtained, e.g. These attributes, which are a subset of attributes used by forensic documents (FDE), have been used for the quantitative writing of manuscripts and very few characters are writing, skill, trust. Work is a step towards scientific support for admission of manuscripts to court. The mathematical approach and the resulting software also have the promise to support the FDE.
Georgi (2001) worked on the process of examining the automated forensics manuscript. The general scheme of a computerized spelling analysis system is given to highlight the fundamental problems of image improvement and definition, characteristics extraction and decision making. The factors influencing the accuracy of the conclusion are evident in his study.
• Gupta (2006) worked on the online examination of the autograph signature (HSV). For HSV, which he discovered in many common authentication tasks. HSV may be superior to many other biometric authentication techniques. They also need special hardware and related performance to capture the image. His article presents an overview of some online HSV techniques that have been reported in the literature. His article also includes some products available and discusses a number of HSV systems.
Simon et. to the. (1997) conducted a study on the verification of offline signature. The original method, in which the geometric characteristics are extracted, has been modified to evaluate the verification performance in the general case of counterfeiting. They contribute to the coded information by adapting the coding method to the image and integrating a spatial distance in the definition of the form factor. Furthermore, they included the coding of information related to the dynamics of the signature. To use these two types of information, they propose a fuzzy technique to combine and then get some sort of information. Evaluate this new coding operator with two types of counterfeits: random simulation of fakes and photocopies with some custom protocols.
• Pervouchina and Leedham (2007) worked on the structural features of the manuscript extracted from three letters “d”, “y” and “f” and grapheme “th”. The functions used were based on the standard features of forensic document examiners. The process of extracting the characteristics was presented together with the results. Functionality utility analysis was performed by searching for optimal feature sets using the wrapper method. A neural network was used as a classifier and a genetic algorithm was used to search for optimal function sets. It is shown that most of the structural microfeature are studied; possess discriminatory power that justifies their use in the forensic analysis of the manuscript. The results also showed that the grapheme had a significantly higher specificity than one of the three individual characters studied, supporting the belief that one form of the character was influenced by its adjacent characters.
Cha and Tappert (2008) studied and studied the discovery of counterfeiting of calligraphy by men and machines. They received experimental writing data from subjects who write samples in their natural style and write counterfeits of other subjects. These handwriting samples were digitized and stored in an image database. Examining how easy it is to falsify manuscripts, they have found that many people can successfully falsify someone else’s calligraphy by tracing their authentic handwriting.Their hypothesis is that the authentic handwriting samples provided by the subjects in their natural writing style, also have the possibility of using the palms of the hands. They believe this is due to the fact that handwriting is changed frequently and the error is resolved when it is scanned with a high-resolution scanner. Using seven handwritten distance characteristics, an artificial neural network to achieve an accuracy of 89%.
• Chris and Leslie (2008) By photographing the hands of 200 students of different ethnic and gender backgrounds, their hands were photographed while they were writing a short sentence. The guardian ProBands who places the A4 sheet at an angle is the most comfortable war for them. The goal is good to identify, is large enough to allow write access to writing positions and spellings are associated with certain writing characteristics so that spelling uses a particular writing position. The predominant writing position is vertical with the sub-vertical to the side and with the vertical notation.
• Blankers et. to the. (2009) found in your herraus study that the results of the detection of counterfeits by implementing biometric signature verification methods are promising. Written for friendly friendly changed by foundations of foundations. With this on-and-off anti-counterfeiting competition, their goal was to take a first step towards bridging the gap between different biometric services and experts. It combines realistic forensic case practices with automated methods, in fact it tests systems for a new forensic record. The results of the following systems are varied: 2.85% fair error (EER) for online data and 9.15% for offline data. Please request that these methods be able to help forensic calligraphy experts (FHE) shape the strengths of the forms that need to be brought to justice in the future.
• Bird et. to the. (2010), worked on FDE skills reports to determine the writing process of 140 pairs of natural and camouflaged writings and compared their results with those of a lay group. A significant difference was found between the investigator and the lay group. The experience of FDEs is characterized by their conservatism, in which FDEs express a higher percentage of ambiguous opinions (23.1% for FDEs compared to 8.4% for the control group). As a result, FDEs express a lower percentage of misleading responses when they call characters as written natively or masked (4.3% for FDEs, compared to 12.2% for the control group).
• Verma et al. (2011) conducted this study based on their hypothesis that signature authentication is the most commonly used method for verifying a person’s identity. Verification can be performed offline or online depending on the application. The features discussed in their article are global and geometric features. Before extracting the functionalities during their search, they requested pre-processing to isolate the area of ??interest of a portion of a signature and remove any existing noise. Initially the system was trained using a database of signatures obtained from those individuals whose signatures must be authenticated by the system. All features have been calculated to form signature samples. There were some differences in the characteristics of the real signatures. By including the Euclidean calculation distance between the average signature and the entire signature formation set, the acceptance range was determined. They have shown from their research that if an interrogation signature is in the acceptance range, it is an authenticated signature, otherwise a fake signature.
William (2011) conducted the study when he was asked to investigate and determine the authorship of electronically-collected signatures. Following these cases, an investigation was carried out for the occasion and determined the reliability of the conclusions concerning the authenticity, the simulation or the pursuit of the signatures in question. The researcher has also developed forensic investigative tools that automate the transformation of raw materials.
SIG files in a form that can be imported into Excel spreadsheets. In Excel, the file can be converted into a signature diagram and various analytical tests can be performed. Our electronic signing contest page has recently been approved and is now a precedent for the approval of these techniques. The study also confirmed much of what the literature on physical manifestations of authenticity, counterfeiting and tracking in an autograph signature said.
• Gupta et al. (2012) According to the natural variations of the manuscript as a basis and the main criterion for the authenticity of one’s spelling be considered, even if this was the least explored area of ??specialization in Frageded documents. The main objectives of their research were to compare age-related changes in different handwriting characteristics of both sexes and to estimate the extent of natural variations in handwriting characters in different age groups during the time. A total of three handwriting samples – two in the present manuscript (with a detachment of 5 to 10 minutes) and a sample of the old handwriting from each individual (time interval ranging from 2-3 years between currents and ancient manuscripts) of 9 different age groups collected starting at the age of 20 up to 60 above. The tools used were the Osborn scale, AutoCAD and Lupe, and Statistics and Microsoft Excel for the interpretation of the results. The cases in which contemporary manuscripts are missing could easily be done taking into account the results of current research, ie manuscript characteristics that are vulnerable to variations (linking letters, alignment and spacing) and those that (for consistency, skill and speed) extracts at the time and the appropriate age and time, the range of natural variations ‘inclination’ and ‘format and the content of the letters’ categories of natural variation and letters that were mainly influenced by the variations.
• Vargas et al. (2013) selected for their research some topics that included the writing instrument, the medium of writing, the type of signature, the age of the individual, the health of the individual and the date of the letter. The final answer of their work is sought, but they have one of three possibilities: the writing is real, the writing has been written (simulated, traced) by another, or the writing has been distorted (car simulation, disguise) from the subject. Most of the participants showed some overlapping characteristics between simulation and disguise; However, it was not possible to find specific trends in the characteristics that characterize each method. Distorted fonts and signatures created by people willing to deny them later. The known natural and distorted characters of over 50 subjects were collected by 3 forensic document examiners from three different geographic regions of the United States and used in direct comparison with their distorted fonts. The strategies with which the authors veiled their writing were also assessed. They hypothesized that the comparison of these characteristics in a direct examination of respondents to known scriptures, as well as natural spelling, could lead to identification.
Handwritten signature one of the most common for the validation of the identity of the person. Signature is usually the most common type of writing a person and as such is usually common. Since, in principle, there are no rules for the development and production of signatures, depending on a person’s mental project, they are open to high individualization. The signatures can be written as encrypted, illegible forms or a set of clearly understandable letters that clearly pronounce the person’s name. Nobody always signs from time to time, even if an author signs several signatures at the same time, he also has some variation. The natural variation of the signature is delinquent for the validators of signatures since the verifier must evaluate if the variation is the natural difference between different representations of a signature or if the variation is sufficiently significant to reject the instances as an attempt to counterfeit. The arrangement of natural variations and not the properties themselves will change progressively over time. This amendment justifies the need for contemporary writing in the evaluation of the manuscript. These changes from signature to signature due to momentary effects of an intrinsic or extrinsic nature, but their overall structure remains intact. This makes the signatures highly visible, provided that adequate standards are available for comparison.
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